Several experimental and clinical studies have shown that a variety of ototoxic agents (such as drugs, industrial chemicalsand noise) can cause sensorineural hearing loss. The most common ototoxic drugs used in clinical practice include:aminoglycoside and macrolide antibiotics, quinoline anti-malarials, platinum analog antineoplastics, loop diuretics, andacetylsalicylic acid. Among chemical agents with potential ototoxic properties are: organic solvents, heavy metals, organotins,nitriles, asphyxiants, and pesticides/herbicides. Acoustic exposure to high intensity and/or prolonged noise can alsocause permanent threshold shifts in auditory perception. Ototoxic agents can influence auditory function by differentmechanisms: RO S overload, inhibition of mitochondrial protein synthesis, DNA/RNA damage, activation of the apoptoticpathways, excessive calcium influx, increase of proinflammatory cytokines, interference with fluid and electrolyte balanceof the endolymph, atrophy of the stria vascularis, changes in blood-labyrinth barrier and overstimulation of the stereociliaof the ear cells. Since noise exposure and many drugs or chemical compounds frequently share the same ototoxic mechanisms,this may explain why hearing loss can be potentiated by combined exposure to these agents. However, a greatvariability in the individual’s response to a given xenobiotic exists and depends on a complex interplay between endogenousand exogenous factors.
|Numero di pagine||10|
|Rivista||Hearing, Balance and Communication|
|Stato di pubblicazione||Published - 2014|
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