Background: Indicaxanthin, a betaxanthin belonging to the betalain class of compounds, has been recently demonstrated to exert significant antiproliferative effects inducing apoptosis of human melanoma cells through the inhibition of NF-κB as the predominant pathway. Specifically, Indicaxanthin inhibited IκBα degradation in A375 cells. In resting cells, NF-κB is arrested in the cytoplasm by binding to its inhibitor protein IκBα. Upon stimulation, IκBα is phosphorylated by the IKK complex, and degraded by the proteasome, liberating free NF-κB into the nucleus to initiate target gene transcription. Inhibition of the IKK complex leads to the arrest of the NF-κB pathway. Methods: To acquire details at the molecular level of Indicaxanthin’s inhibitory activity against hIKKβ, molecular modeling and simulation techniques including induced-fit docking (IFD), binding pose metadynamics (BPMD), molecular dynamics simulations, and MM-GBSA (molecular mechanics-generalized Born surface area continuum solvation) have been performed. Results: The computational calculations performed on the active and inactive form, and the allosteric binding site of hIKKβ, revealed that Indicaxanthin inhibits prevalently the active form of the hIKKβ. MM-GBSA computations provide further evidence of Indicaxanthin’s stability inside the active binding pocket with a binding free energy of −22.2 ± 4.3 kcal/mol with respect to the inactive binding pocket with a binding free energy of −20.7 ± 4.7 kcal/mol. BPMD and MD simulation revealed that Indicaxanthin is likely not an allosteric inhibitor of hIKKβ. Conclusion: As a whole, these in silico pieces of evidence show that Indicaxanthin can inhibit the active form of the hIKKβ adding novel mechanistic insights on its recently discovered ability to impair NF-κB signaling in melanoma A375 cells. Moreover, our results suggest the phytochemical as a new lead compound for novel, more potent IKKβ inhibitors to be employed in the treatment of cancer and inflammation-related conditions.
|Numero di pagine||13|
|Rivista||Frontiers in Pharmacology|
|Stato di pubblicazione||Published - 2021|
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