European Red List of Grasshoppers, Crickets and Bush-crickets

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Abstract

The European Red List is a review of the conservationstatus of European species according to IUCN regionalRed Listing guidelines. It identifies those species that arethreatened with extinction at the regional level, so thatappropriate conservation action can be taken to improvetheir status. This Red List publication summarises resultsfor all hitherto described native European Orthopteraspecies (grasshoppers, crickets and bush-crickets). All Orthoptera species (grasshoppers, crickets and bushcrickets) native to or naturalised in Europe before AD1500 (a total of 1,082 species), have been assessed inthis Red List. The geographical scope is continent-wide,extending from Iceland in the west to the Urals in theeast, and from Franz Josef Land in the north to theCanary Islands in the south. The Caucasus region is notincluded. Red List assessments were made at two regionallevels: for geographical Europe, and for the 28 MemberStates of the European Union in 2016. The status of all species was assessed using the IUCNRed List Categories and Criteria (IUCN 2012a), which isthe world’s most widely accepted system for measuringextinction risk. All assessments followed the Guidelinesfor Application of IUCN Red List Criteria at Regional andNational Levels (IUCN 2012b).The assessments were compiled based on the data andknowledge from a network of leading European expertson Orthoptera. The assessments were then completedand reviewed at six workshops held in Italy, Greece,France, Bulgaria, Spain and Germany as well as throughemail correspondence with relevant experts. More than145 experts participated in the assessment and reviewprocess for European Orthoptera species. Assessmentsare available on the European Red List website anddata portal: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/conservation/species/redlist and http://www.iucnredlist.org/initiatives/europe. Overall, 25.7% and 28% of Orthoptera species areassessed as threatened at the European and EU 28 levels,respectively. However, the exact proportion of threatenedspecies is uncertain, as there are 107 (10%) Data Deficient(DD) species in Europe and 84 DD species (8.5%) in theEU 28. Estimating that a similar relative proportion of theDD assessments are likely to be threatened (IUCN 2011),the best estimate of the threatened share of Orthopteraspecies is thus 28.5% in Europe and 30.6% in the EU 28.Further research on DD species to clarify their status istherefore critical. A further 13.9% (149 species) and 13%(128 species) are considered Near Threatened in Europeand in the EU 28, respectively.By comparison, the best estimate of threatenedspecies of those other groups that have been assessedcomprehensively in Europe is 58% of freshwater molluscs,40% of freshwater fishes, 23% of amphibians, 20% ofreptiles, 17% of mammals, 16% of dragonflies, 13% ofbirds, 9% of butterflies and bees, 8% of aquatic plants andmarine fishes and 2% of medicinal plants (IUCN 2015).Additional European Red Lists assessing a selection ofspecies showed that 22% of terrestrial molluscs, 16% ofcrop wild relatives and 15% of saproxylic beetles are alsothreatened (IUCN 2015). No other groups have yet beenassessed at the European level.Looking at the population trends of European Orthopteraspecies, 30.2% (325 species) have declining populations,7.6% (82 species) are believed to be more or less stableand 3.2% (34 species) are increasing. However, thepopulation trends for the majority of species (59%, 634species) remain unknown.Out of the 739 species that are endemic to Europe(i.e., they are found nowhere else in the world), 231(31.3%) are th
Lingua originaleEnglish
EditoreEuropean Union
Numero di pagine94
Stato di pubblicazionePublished - 2016

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