Environmental risk factors and lung diseases in children: From guidelines to health effects

Stefania La Grutta, Giuliana Ferrante, Giuliana Ferrante, Annalisa Di Coste, Umberto Pelosi, Luciana Indinnimeo, Stefania La Grutta, Franca Rusconi, Massimo Landi

Risultato della ricerca: Articlepeer review

17 Citazioni (Scopus)

Abstract

During the last decades research all over the world has highlighted the deleterious effects of outdoor and indoor pollution on respiratory health of adults and children. The World Health Organization (WHO) “Air quality guidelines for Europe” played a fundamental role in providing information and guidance to authorities involved in the air pollution field and they are considered the key source on which the European Commission's directive on air quality is based. Children appear to be most vulnerable to the harmful effects of outdoor pollutants, which can cause both acute exacerbations, as well as chronic respiratory symptoms and diseases. Possible mechanisms include the induction of oxidative stress, and/or allergic sensitization, as well as increased susceptibility to infections. Cigarette smoke is one of the environmental pollutant influencing morbidity and death rate in childhood as responsible for adverse health effects in both prenatal and postnatal. There is growing epidemiological evidence that indoor allergen exposure may contribute to the development of allergic respiratory symptoms. In Italy the housing and social situation, with regard to the aspects related to exposure to secondhand smoke or the presence of fungal spores, moisture linked to household vapor and poor ventilation of the rooms are problems still not completely resolved. From a medical point of view the field of pediatrics has certainly made great strides in promoting the health of children and pediatricians to have a central role for pursuing this objective.
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)S59-S62
Numero di pagine4
RivistaEARLY HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
Volume89
Stato di pubblicazionePublished - 2013

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Obstetrics and Gynaecology

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