Environmental impact of magmatic fluorine emission in the Mt. Etna area

Francesco Parello, Sergio Francesco Bellomo, Alessandro Aiuppa, Sergio Bellomo, Alessandro Aiuppa, Walter D'Alessandro

Risultato della ricerca: Article

35 Citazioni (Scopus)

Abstract

The sustained and uninterrupted plume degassing at Mount Etna volcano, Southern Italy, represents the troposphere's most prominent natural source of fluorine. Of the ∼ 200 Mg of fluorine (as HFg) emitted daily by the volcano, 1.6 ± 2.7 Mg are deposited by wet and dry deposition. Fluorine-deposition via volcanic ash, here characterised for the first time, can be quite significant during volcanic eruptions (i.e. 60 Mg of fluorine were deposited during the 2001 eruption through volcanic ash, corresponding to ∼ 85% of the total fluorine deposition). Despite the fact that these depositions are huge, the fate of the deposited fluorine and its impact on the environment are poorly understood. We herein present original data on fluorine abundance in vegetation (Castanea Sativa and Pinus Nigra) and andosoils from the volcano's flank, in the attempt to reveal the potential impact of volcanogenic fluorine emissions. Fluorine contents in chestnut leaves and pine needles are in the range 1.8–35 μg/g and 2.1–74 μg/g respectively; they exceed the typical background concentrations in plants growing in rural areas, but fall within the lower range of typical concentrations in plants growing near high fluorine anthropogenic emission sources. The rare plume fumigations on the lower flanks of Mt Etna (distance > 4 km from summit craters) are probably the cause of the “undisturbed” nature of Etnean vegetation: climatic conditions, which limit the growth of vegetation on the upper regione deserta, are a natural limit to the development of more severe impacts. High fluorine contents, associated with visible symptoms, were only measured in pine needles at three sites, located near recently-active (2001 to 2003) lateral eruptive fractures. Total fluorine contents (FTOT) in the Etnean soils have a range of 112–341 μg/g, and fall within the typical range of undisturbed soils; fluorine extracted with distilled water (FH2O) have a range of 5.1 to 61 μg/g and accounts for 2–40% of FTOT. FH2O is higher in topsoils from the eastern flank (downwind), while it decreases with depth in soil profiles and on increasing soil grain size (thereby testifying to its association with clay–mineral-rich, fine soil fractions). The fluorine adsorption capacity of the andosoils acts as a natural barrier that protects the groundwater system.
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)87-101
Numero di pagine15
RivistaJournal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research
Volume165
Stato di pubblicazionePublished - 2007

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Fluorine
fluorine
Environmental impact
environmental impact
Volcanic Eruptions
soils
Volcanoes
Soils
vegetation
volcanoes
volcano
volcanic ash
ashes
needles
Needles
volcanic eruptions
plumes
fumigation
volcanic eruption
soil

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Geophysics
  • Geochemistry and Petrology

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Environmental impact of magmatic fluorine emission in the Mt. Etna area. / Parello, Francesco; Bellomo, Sergio Francesco; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Bellomo, Sergio; Aiuppa, Alessandro; D'Alessandro, Walter.

In: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, Vol. 165, 2007, pag. 87-101.

Risultato della ricerca: Article

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abstract = "The sustained and uninterrupted plume degassing at Mount Etna volcano, Southern Italy, represents the troposphere's most prominent natural source of fluorine. Of the ∼ 200 Mg of fluorine (as HFg) emitted daily by the volcano, 1.6 ± 2.7 Mg are deposited by wet and dry deposition. Fluorine-deposition via volcanic ash, here characterised for the first time, can be quite significant during volcanic eruptions (i.e. 60 Mg of fluorine were deposited during the 2001 eruption through volcanic ash, corresponding to ∼ 85{\%} of the total fluorine deposition). Despite the fact that these depositions are huge, the fate of the deposited fluorine and its impact on the environment are poorly understood. We herein present original data on fluorine abundance in vegetation (Castanea Sativa and Pinus Nigra) and andosoils from the volcano's flank, in the attempt to reveal the potential impact of volcanogenic fluorine emissions. Fluorine contents in chestnut leaves and pine needles are in the range 1.8–35 μg/g and 2.1–74 μg/g respectively; they exceed the typical background concentrations in plants growing in rural areas, but fall within the lower range of typical concentrations in plants growing near high fluorine anthropogenic emission sources. The rare plume fumigations on the lower flanks of Mt Etna (distance > 4 km from summit craters) are probably the cause of the “undisturbed” nature of Etnean vegetation: climatic conditions, which limit the growth of vegetation on the upper regione deserta, are a natural limit to the development of more severe impacts. High fluorine contents, associated with visible symptoms, were only measured in pine needles at three sites, located near recently-active (2001 to 2003) lateral eruptive fractures. Total fluorine contents (FTOT) in the Etnean soils have a range of 112–341 μg/g, and fall within the typical range of undisturbed soils; fluorine extracted with distilled water (FH2O) have a range of 5.1 to 61 μg/g and accounts for 2–40{\%} of FTOT. FH2O is higher in topsoils from the eastern flank (downwind), while it decreases with depth in soil profiles and on increasing soil grain size (thereby testifying to its association with clay–mineral-rich, fine soil fractions). The fluorine adsorption capacity of the andosoils acts as a natural barrier that protects the groundwater system.",
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T1 - Environmental impact of magmatic fluorine emission in the Mt. Etna area

AU - Parello, Francesco

AU - Bellomo, Sergio Francesco

AU - Aiuppa, Alessandro

AU - Bellomo, Sergio

AU - Aiuppa, Alessandro

AU - D'Alessandro, Walter

PY - 2007

Y1 - 2007

N2 - The sustained and uninterrupted plume degassing at Mount Etna volcano, Southern Italy, represents the troposphere's most prominent natural source of fluorine. Of the ∼ 200 Mg of fluorine (as HFg) emitted daily by the volcano, 1.6 ± 2.7 Mg are deposited by wet and dry deposition. Fluorine-deposition via volcanic ash, here characterised for the first time, can be quite significant during volcanic eruptions (i.e. 60 Mg of fluorine were deposited during the 2001 eruption through volcanic ash, corresponding to ∼ 85% of the total fluorine deposition). Despite the fact that these depositions are huge, the fate of the deposited fluorine and its impact on the environment are poorly understood. We herein present original data on fluorine abundance in vegetation (Castanea Sativa and Pinus Nigra) and andosoils from the volcano's flank, in the attempt to reveal the potential impact of volcanogenic fluorine emissions. Fluorine contents in chestnut leaves and pine needles are in the range 1.8–35 μg/g and 2.1–74 μg/g respectively; they exceed the typical background concentrations in plants growing in rural areas, but fall within the lower range of typical concentrations in plants growing near high fluorine anthropogenic emission sources. The rare plume fumigations on the lower flanks of Mt Etna (distance > 4 km from summit craters) are probably the cause of the “undisturbed” nature of Etnean vegetation: climatic conditions, which limit the growth of vegetation on the upper regione deserta, are a natural limit to the development of more severe impacts. High fluorine contents, associated with visible symptoms, were only measured in pine needles at three sites, located near recently-active (2001 to 2003) lateral eruptive fractures. Total fluorine contents (FTOT) in the Etnean soils have a range of 112–341 μg/g, and fall within the typical range of undisturbed soils; fluorine extracted with distilled water (FH2O) have a range of 5.1 to 61 μg/g and accounts for 2–40% of FTOT. FH2O is higher in topsoils from the eastern flank (downwind), while it decreases with depth in soil profiles and on increasing soil grain size (thereby testifying to its association with clay–mineral-rich, fine soil fractions). The fluorine adsorption capacity of the andosoils acts as a natural barrier that protects the groundwater system.

AB - The sustained and uninterrupted plume degassing at Mount Etna volcano, Southern Italy, represents the troposphere's most prominent natural source of fluorine. Of the ∼ 200 Mg of fluorine (as HFg) emitted daily by the volcano, 1.6 ± 2.7 Mg are deposited by wet and dry deposition. Fluorine-deposition via volcanic ash, here characterised for the first time, can be quite significant during volcanic eruptions (i.e. 60 Mg of fluorine were deposited during the 2001 eruption through volcanic ash, corresponding to ∼ 85% of the total fluorine deposition). Despite the fact that these depositions are huge, the fate of the deposited fluorine and its impact on the environment are poorly understood. We herein present original data on fluorine abundance in vegetation (Castanea Sativa and Pinus Nigra) and andosoils from the volcano's flank, in the attempt to reveal the potential impact of volcanogenic fluorine emissions. Fluorine contents in chestnut leaves and pine needles are in the range 1.8–35 μg/g and 2.1–74 μg/g respectively; they exceed the typical background concentrations in plants growing in rural areas, but fall within the lower range of typical concentrations in plants growing near high fluorine anthropogenic emission sources. The rare plume fumigations on the lower flanks of Mt Etna (distance > 4 km from summit craters) are probably the cause of the “undisturbed” nature of Etnean vegetation: climatic conditions, which limit the growth of vegetation on the upper regione deserta, are a natural limit to the development of more severe impacts. High fluorine contents, associated with visible symptoms, were only measured in pine needles at three sites, located near recently-active (2001 to 2003) lateral eruptive fractures. Total fluorine contents (FTOT) in the Etnean soils have a range of 112–341 μg/g, and fall within the typical range of undisturbed soils; fluorine extracted with distilled water (FH2O) have a range of 5.1 to 61 μg/g and accounts for 2–40% of FTOT. FH2O is higher in topsoils from the eastern flank (downwind), while it decreases with depth in soil profiles and on increasing soil grain size (thereby testifying to its association with clay–mineral-rich, fine soil fractions). The fluorine adsorption capacity of the andosoils acts as a natural barrier that protects the groundwater system.

KW - Mt. Etna, fluorine emission

UR - http://hdl.handle.net/10447/32483

M3 - Article

VL - 165

SP - 87

EP - 101

JO - Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research

JF - Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research

SN - 0377-0273

ER -