Environmental factors impact and incidence of parasitism of psyllaephagus bliteus riek (Hymenoptera Encyrtidae) on populations of glycaspis brimblecombei moore (Hemiptera Aphalaridae) in mediterranean climatic areas

Gabriella Lo Verde, Alessandra La Pergola, Virgilio Caleca, Alberto Lombardo, Carmelo Rapisarda, Roberto Rizzo, Salvatore Nucifora, Alessandra La Pergola, Salvatore Bella, Pompeo Suma

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Abstract

The red gum lerp psyllid, Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Aphalaridae), is an Australian native sap-sucking insect pest of eucalypts that has been first reported for the West Palaearctic Region in 2008 and, in 2010, it has been found also in Italy. Subsequently its primary parasitoid, Psyllaephagus bliteus Riek (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), was also detected within the main European and North African infested areas, where no release of the parasitoid was ever performed. This study, carried out in 30 Eucalyptus camaldulensis plantations located along the coast, on the hills and the mountains in Mediterranean climatic areas of Sicily (Italy), aimed to determine the influence of environmental parameters on the incidence of both, the psyllid infestation level and the parasitization activity. P. bliteus reached highest average levels in summer samplings and resulted widespread in Sicily at all detected altitudes without statistically significant differences. P. bliteus parasitization is the main factor lowering G. brimblecombei infestation; this result, together with the accidental and contemporaneous arrival of the host and its parasitoid, could explain the absence of high damage level on eucalypts in Sicily. The most significant metric factors positively influencing G. brimblecombei infestation are the percentage of daily hours above 80% of relative humidity and the average maximum temperature, obviously related to other, but less significant climatic factors. The altitude affects both infestation and parasitization, but single sites could explain significantly more, so that the local conditions where the samplings were carried out have to be considered as the main responsibles for the variability in the obtained results. In any sampled Sicilian site, from sea level to 540 m a.s.l., both the psyllid and its parasitoids show a good adaptation to climatic conditions, confirming that areas fitting for E. camaldulensis growth fit also for P. bliteus activity, and proving that Mediterranean climate, differently from some inland areas of California, does not obstacle its parasitic activity.
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)89-100
Numero di pagine12
RivistaRedia
Volume101
Stato di pubblicazionePublished - 2018

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Aphalaridae
Glycaspis brimblecombei
Psyllaephagus
Encyrtidae
Hemiptera
Hymenoptera
Psyllidae
Sicily
parasitism
Eucalyptus camaldulensis
incidence
environmental factors
Incidence
Italy
Population
climatic factors
Mediterranean climate
Eucalyptus
sap
insect pests

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)

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@article{53dc3dabb47b472d8f12316ca353b5c9,
title = "Environmental factors impact and incidence of parasitism of psyllaephagus bliteus riek (Hymenoptera Encyrtidae) on populations of glycaspis brimblecombei moore (Hemiptera Aphalaridae) in mediterranean climatic areas",
abstract = "The red gum lerp psyllid, Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Aphalaridae), is an Australian native sap-sucking insect pest of eucalypts that has been first reported for the West Palaearctic Region in 2008 and, in 2010, it has been found also in Italy. Subsequently its primary parasitoid, Psyllaephagus bliteus Riek (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), was also detected within the main European and North African infested areas, where no release of the parasitoid was ever performed. This study, carried out in 30 Eucalyptus camaldulensis plantations located along the coast, on the hills and the mountains in Mediterranean climatic areas of Sicily (Italy), aimed to determine the influence of environmental parameters on the incidence of both, the psyllid infestation level and the parasitization activity. P. bliteus reached highest average levels in summer samplings and resulted widespread in Sicily at all detected altitudes without statistically significant differences. P. bliteus parasitization is the main factor lowering G. brimblecombei infestation; this result, together with the accidental and contemporaneous arrival of the host and its parasitoid, could explain the absence of high damage level on eucalypts in Sicily. The most significant metric factors positively influencing G. brimblecombei infestation are the percentage of daily hours above 80{\%} of relative humidity and the average maximum temperature, obviously related to other, but less significant climatic factors. The altitude affects both infestation and parasitization, but single sites could explain significantly more, so that the local conditions where the samplings were carried out have to be considered as the main responsibles for the variability in the obtained results. In any sampled Sicilian site, from sea level to 540 m a.s.l., both the psyllid and its parasitoids show a good adaptation to climatic conditions, confirming that areas fitting for E. camaldulensis growth fit also for P. bliteus activity, and proving that Mediterranean climate, differently from some inland areas of California, does not obstacle its parasitic activity.",
author = "{Lo Verde}, Gabriella and {La Pergola}, Alessandra and Virgilio Caleca and Alberto Lombardo and Carmelo Rapisarda and Roberto Rizzo and Salvatore Nucifora and Pergola, {Alessandra La} and Salvatore Bella and Pompeo Suma",
year = "2018",
language = "English",
volume = "101",
pages = "89--100",
journal = "Redia",
issn = "0370-4327",
publisher = "Coppini",

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TY - JOUR

T1 - Environmental factors impact and incidence of parasitism of psyllaephagus bliteus riek (Hymenoptera Encyrtidae) on populations of glycaspis brimblecombei moore (Hemiptera Aphalaridae) in mediterranean climatic areas

AU - Lo Verde, Gabriella

AU - La Pergola, Alessandra

AU - Caleca, Virgilio

AU - Lombardo, Alberto

AU - Rapisarda, Carmelo

AU - Rizzo, Roberto

AU - Nucifora, Salvatore

AU - Pergola, Alessandra La

AU - Bella, Salvatore

AU - Suma, Pompeo

PY - 2018

Y1 - 2018

N2 - The red gum lerp psyllid, Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Aphalaridae), is an Australian native sap-sucking insect pest of eucalypts that has been first reported for the West Palaearctic Region in 2008 and, in 2010, it has been found also in Italy. Subsequently its primary parasitoid, Psyllaephagus bliteus Riek (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), was also detected within the main European and North African infested areas, where no release of the parasitoid was ever performed. This study, carried out in 30 Eucalyptus camaldulensis plantations located along the coast, on the hills and the mountains in Mediterranean climatic areas of Sicily (Italy), aimed to determine the influence of environmental parameters on the incidence of both, the psyllid infestation level and the parasitization activity. P. bliteus reached highest average levels in summer samplings and resulted widespread in Sicily at all detected altitudes without statistically significant differences. P. bliteus parasitization is the main factor lowering G. brimblecombei infestation; this result, together with the accidental and contemporaneous arrival of the host and its parasitoid, could explain the absence of high damage level on eucalypts in Sicily. The most significant metric factors positively influencing G. brimblecombei infestation are the percentage of daily hours above 80% of relative humidity and the average maximum temperature, obviously related to other, but less significant climatic factors. The altitude affects both infestation and parasitization, but single sites could explain significantly more, so that the local conditions where the samplings were carried out have to be considered as the main responsibles for the variability in the obtained results. In any sampled Sicilian site, from sea level to 540 m a.s.l., both the psyllid and its parasitoids show a good adaptation to climatic conditions, confirming that areas fitting for E. camaldulensis growth fit also for P. bliteus activity, and proving that Mediterranean climate, differently from some inland areas of California, does not obstacle its parasitic activity.

AB - The red gum lerp psyllid, Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Aphalaridae), is an Australian native sap-sucking insect pest of eucalypts that has been first reported for the West Palaearctic Region in 2008 and, in 2010, it has been found also in Italy. Subsequently its primary parasitoid, Psyllaephagus bliteus Riek (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), was also detected within the main European and North African infested areas, where no release of the parasitoid was ever performed. This study, carried out in 30 Eucalyptus camaldulensis plantations located along the coast, on the hills and the mountains in Mediterranean climatic areas of Sicily (Italy), aimed to determine the influence of environmental parameters on the incidence of both, the psyllid infestation level and the parasitization activity. P. bliteus reached highest average levels in summer samplings and resulted widespread in Sicily at all detected altitudes without statistically significant differences. P. bliteus parasitization is the main factor lowering G. brimblecombei infestation; this result, together with the accidental and contemporaneous arrival of the host and its parasitoid, could explain the absence of high damage level on eucalypts in Sicily. The most significant metric factors positively influencing G. brimblecombei infestation are the percentage of daily hours above 80% of relative humidity and the average maximum temperature, obviously related to other, but less significant climatic factors. The altitude affects both infestation and parasitization, but single sites could explain significantly more, so that the local conditions where the samplings were carried out have to be considered as the main responsibles for the variability in the obtained results. In any sampled Sicilian site, from sea level to 540 m a.s.l., both the psyllid and its parasitoids show a good adaptation to climatic conditions, confirming that areas fitting for E. camaldulensis growth fit also for P. bliteus activity, and proving that Mediterranean climate, differently from some inland areas of California, does not obstacle its parasitic activity.

UR - http://hdl.handle.net/10447/349048

UR - http://www.redia.it/images/stories/Online%20first%20articles/2018/12%20Caleca%20EU__.pdf

M3 - Article

VL - 101

SP - 89

EP - 100

JO - Redia

JF - Redia

SN - 0370-4327

ER -