Energy, water and environmental balance of a complex water supply system

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The present paper describes the analysis of water and energy balance in a complexurban water supply system. The analysis was carried out employing Life CycleAnalysis (LCA) methodologies. The LCA approach was integrated with theanalysis of the system energy and water balance. For a real size water supplysystem, based on the results of the individual LCAs, the current baseline wasconstructed highlighting the water, energy and environmental (in terms of CO2eqemissions in the atmosphere) costs of supplied water. Then, three differentmitigation measures have been evaluated: the first is based on energy productionby installation of photovoltaic systems; the second is based on energy recovery bymeans of hydraulic turbines, exploiting the available pressure potential to produceenergy; the third based on energy optimization of pumping stations by installinginverter systems, replacement of rotors with optimized blade profiles andinstallation of automation systems and self-control. Also the possibility ofsubstituting some of the pipes of the water supply system was considered in therecovery scenario in order to reduce leakages and recovery the energy needed forleakages transport and treatment. The analysis of the results shown that energyrecovery scenario is the most reliable solution even without any pipe substitution.Thanks to the recovery of energy and limiting the environmental impact of thesystem, the CO2eq production per cubic meter of supplied water was reduced from0.41 to 0.07 kg CO2eq/m3 of supplied water.
Lingua originaleEnglish
Titolo della pubblicazione ospiteWater and Society III
Numero di pagine11
Stato di pubblicazionePublished - 2015

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