### Abstract

It is widely recognized that displacement based elements produce solution with poor stress fields, which do not satisfy equilibrium equations. In several fields of computational mechanics, such as cohesive crack propagation and cohesive delamination, stress fields drive all the nonlinear phenomena and very fine meshes have to be employed in order to avoid numerical instabilities. Inter-element equilibrium condition is generally not satisfied and the stress field can abruptly change between adjacent elements, producing numerical instabilities in non linear analysis.Finite element formulation based on stress fields satisfying locally equilibrium condition are known in literature since 1964 by the pioneering work of de Vebeuke [1,2] and, for its accuracy of solution stress fields, it can be suitable in several fields of computational mechanics, such as: cohesive crack propagation; lower bound limit and shakedown analyses; topology structural optimization. Equilibrium element can be developed also in hybrid formulation with independent equilibrated stress fields on each element [3,4], producing solution which satisfy strong equilibrium condition throughout the domain with codiffusive traction at each side. Traction equilibrium condition, at sides between adjacent elements and at sides of free boundary, is enforced by use of independent side displacement laws, assumed as lagrangian parameters. The most relevant problem in the use of hybrid equilibrium element is the presence of Spurious Kinematic Modes (SKMs) [5,6], which are displacement modes with null traction at sides. SKMs can heavily corrupt the elastic solution both in terms of displacement and in terms of stress.In the present paper, hybrid stress elements are proposed as alternative to standard finite elements in a rigorous mathematical framework and an approach for elimination of spurious kinematic modes is presented. The results of the proposed approach are compared to classical displacement based method by linear elastic analysis of some well known structural problems. References[1]Fraeijs de Veubeke B. Upper and lower bounds in matrix structural analysis. AGARDograf (1964); 72:165-201.[2]Fraeijs de Veubeke B. Displacements and equilibrium models in the finite elements method. In Stress Analysis, Zienkiewicz OC, Holister GS (eds), Chapter 9. Wiley: London, (1965).[3]Almeida JPM, Freitas JAT. An alternative approach to the formulation of hybrid equilibrium finite elements. Computers and Structures (1991); 40:1043-1047.[4]Almeida JPM, Pereira OJBA. A set of hybrid equilibrium finite element models for the analysis of threedimensional solids. Int.Jou. for Num.Met. in Eng. (1996); 39:2789-2802.[5]E.A.W. Maunder, J.P. Moitinho de Almeida. Hybrid-equilibrium elements with control of spurious kinematic modes. Comp.Assisted Mech. and Eng. Sciences, 4: 587-605, (1997).[6]E.A.W. Maunder et al. A general formulation of equilibrium macro-elements with control of spurious kinematic modes:… Int.Jou.Num.Met.Eng., Vol 39, 3175-3194 (1996)

Lingua originale | English |
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Numero di pagine | 1 |

Stato di pubblicazione | Published - 2011 |