Anisakiasis is among the most significant emerging foodborne parasitoses contracted through consumption of thermally unprocessed seafood harboring infective Anisakis species larvae. The efficacy of the currently applied anthelminthic therapy in humans and in model organisms has not proven sufficient, so alternative solutions employing natural compounds combined with chemical inhibitors should be explored. By testing toxicity of the natural monoterpenes nerolidol and farnesol and the conventional anthelminthics abamectin and levamisole in the presence/absence of MK-571 and Valspodar, which inhibit the ABC transporter proteins multidrug resistance protein (MRP-like) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp), we determined the preliminary traits of Anisakis detoxifying mechanisms. We found that Anisakis P-gp and MRP-like transporters have a role in the efflux of the tested compounds, which could be useful in the design of novel anthelminthic strategies. As expected, transporter activation and efflux fluctuated over time; they were synchronously active very early postexposure, whereas the activity of one transporter dominated over the other in a time-dependent manner. MRP-like transporters dominated in the efflux of farnesol, and P-gp dominated in efflux of nerolidol, while both were active in effluxing levamisole. The highest toxicity was exerted by abamectin, a P-gp inhibitor per se, which also elicited the highest oxidative stress in treated Anisakis larvae. We suggest that β-tubulin, observed for the first time as a core element in Anisakis cuticle, might represent an important target for the tested compounds.
|Numero di pagine||14|
|Rivista||Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy|
|Stato di pubblicazione||Published - 2018|
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