Background: There has been an increase in research into the association between angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene deletion polymorphism and cardiovascular disease, with conflicting results. The present prospective long-term study was conducted to evaluate whether the DD genotype could also be associated with a higher prevalence of hypertension in healthy subjects, over 6 years of follow-up. Methods: Population: 684 healthy volunteers (aged, 25-55 years): normotensive and free of cardiovascular diseases, with acceptable echocardiographic window. All subjects had to have a normal electrocardiogram (ECG) and echocardiogram (ECHO) at entry. Study protocol: All subjects underwent a complete physical examination, 12-lead ECG and ECHO, and venous blood samples were drawn for DNA analysis and cholesterol. All subjects had a clinical evaluation each year for the 6 year duration of the study. Results: All 684 subjects completed 6 years of follow-up. We identified three genetically distinct groups. The ACE-DD group (n=225, 80F/145M, mean age 43.4±7.6 years) had 42 hypertensive subjects (18.3%), 5 heart failure (HF) subjects and 6 subjects with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). There was no association between family history, smoking habit, hypercholesterolemia and events. The ACE-ID group (n=335, 116F/219M, mean age 43.6±7 years) had 16 hypertensive subjects (4.7%) and 3 subjects with ACS. The ACE-II group (n=124, 45F/79M, mean age 42.5±6.9 years) had 2 hypertensive subjects (1.6%) and 1 HF subject. The incidence of hypertension and cardiovascular events was significantly higher in the ACE-DD group (53 cases, 23%) than in the ACE-ID and ACE-II groups (20 and 3 cases, 5.9 and 2.4%, respectively), P=0.0001. The higher incidence of hypertension was observed in the older age groups (36-45 and 46-55 years) with ACE-DD and ACE-ID genotypes. Conclusion: Our data suggest that ACE-DD polymorphism is associated with a higher incidence of hypertension in baseline healthy subjects, irrespective of other risk factors. The higher incidence of hypertension was apparent predominantly in the older age groups.
|Numero di pagine||6|
|Rivista||European Journal of Heart Failure|
|Stato di pubblicazione||Published - 2004|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine