Discovery of periodic dips in the light curve of GX 13+1: the X-ray orbital ephemeris of the source

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Abstract

Context. The bright low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) GX 13+1 is one of the most peculiar Galactic binary systems. A periodicity of 24.27 d was observed in its power spectrum density obtained from data collected over 14 years by the All Sky Monitor (ASM) on board the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE).Aims: To determine the first X-ray orbital ephemeris of GX 13+1, we systematically searched for periodic dips in the RXTE/ASM and Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) light curves of the source, the light curves span from 1996 up to 2013.Methods: We searched for a periodic signal in the RXTE/ASM and MAXI light curves and find a common periodicity of 24.53 d. We folded the 1.3-5 keV and 5-12.1 keV RXTE/ASM light curves and the 2-4 and 4-10 keV MAXI light curves with the period of 24.53 d and detected a periodic dip. To refine the value of the period we divided the RXTE/ASM and MAXI light curves into eight and two intervals, respectively. Using the timing technique, we obtained four and two dip arrival times from the RXTE/ASM and MAXI light curves, respectively.Results: We improved the X-ray position of GX 13+1 using a recent Chandra observation. The new X-ray position is discrepant by ~7" from the previous one, while it is compatible with the infrared and radio counterpart positions. We detected an X-ray dip totally covered by the Chandra observation and showed, a posteriori, that it is a periodic dip. We obtained seven dip arrival times from RXTE/ASM, MAXI, and Chandra light curves. We calculated the delays of the detected dip arrival times with respect to the expected times for a 24.52 d periodicity. Fitting the delays with a linear function, we find that the orbital period and the epoch of reference of GX 13+1 are 24.5274(2) days and 50 086.79(3) MJD, respectively. We do not improve the fit by adopting a quadratic ephemeris. The inferred orbital period derivative of 8(37) × 10-8 s/s, with an error of 68% confidence level, does not allow us to constrain the orbital evolution of the binary system.Conclusions: We demonstrated the existence of periodic dips in both RXTE/ASM and MAXI light curves, and estimated that the orbital period of GX 13+1 is 24.5274(2) d. The LMXB GX 13+1 has the longest known orbital period for a Galactic neutron star LMXB powered by Roche lobe overflow.
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)99-109
Numero di pagine11
RivistaASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS
Volume561
Stato di pubblicazionePublished - 2014

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light curve
sky
monitors
dip
orbitals
X Ray Timing Explorer
x rays
arrivals
periodic variations
arrival time
periodicity
time measurement
lobes
neutron stars
power spectra
confidence

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

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@article{b95dfa44768f43eaacd61432380495f7,
title = "Discovery of periodic dips in the light curve of GX 13+1: the X-ray orbital ephemeris of the source",
abstract = "Context. The bright low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) GX 13+1 is one of the most peculiar Galactic binary systems. A periodicity of 24.27 d was observed in its power spectrum density obtained from data collected over 14 years by the All Sky Monitor (ASM) on board the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE).Aims: To determine the first X-ray orbital ephemeris of GX 13+1, we systematically searched for periodic dips in the RXTE/ASM and Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) light curves of the source, the light curves span from 1996 up to 2013.Methods: We searched for a periodic signal in the RXTE/ASM and MAXI light curves and find a common periodicity of 24.53 d. We folded the 1.3-5 keV and 5-12.1 keV RXTE/ASM light curves and the 2-4 and 4-10 keV MAXI light curves with the period of 24.53 d and detected a periodic dip. To refine the value of the period we divided the RXTE/ASM and MAXI light curves into eight and two intervals, respectively. Using the timing technique, we obtained four and two dip arrival times from the RXTE/ASM and MAXI light curves, respectively.Results: We improved the X-ray position of GX 13+1 using a recent Chandra observation. The new X-ray position is discrepant by ~7{"} from the previous one, while it is compatible with the infrared and radio counterpart positions. We detected an X-ray dip totally covered by the Chandra observation and showed, a posteriori, that it is a periodic dip. We obtained seven dip arrival times from RXTE/ASM, MAXI, and Chandra light curves. We calculated the delays of the detected dip arrival times with respect to the expected times for a 24.52 d periodicity. Fitting the delays with a linear function, we find that the orbital period and the epoch of reference of GX 13+1 are 24.5274(2) days and 50 086.79(3) MJD, respectively. We do not improve the fit by adopting a quadratic ephemeris. The inferred orbital period derivative of 8(37) × 10-8 s/s, with an error of 68{\%} confidence level, does not allow us to constrain the orbital evolution of the binary system.Conclusions: We demonstrated the existence of periodic dips in both RXTE/ASM and MAXI light curves, and estimated that the orbital period of GX 13+1 is 24.5274(2) d. The LMXB GX 13+1 has the longest known orbital period for a Galactic neutron star LMXB powered by Roche lobe overflow.",
author = "Antonino D'Ai' and {Di Salvo}, Tiziana and Rosario Iaria and Riggio and Burderi",
year = "2014",
language = "English",
volume = "561",
pages = "99--109",
journal = "ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS",
issn = "0004-6361",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Discovery of periodic dips in the light curve of GX 13+1: the X-ray orbital ephemeris of the source

AU - D'Ai', Antonino

AU - Di Salvo, Tiziana

AU - Iaria, Rosario

AU - Riggio, null

AU - Burderi, null

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - Context. The bright low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) GX 13+1 is one of the most peculiar Galactic binary systems. A periodicity of 24.27 d was observed in its power spectrum density obtained from data collected over 14 years by the All Sky Monitor (ASM) on board the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE).Aims: To determine the first X-ray orbital ephemeris of GX 13+1, we systematically searched for periodic dips in the RXTE/ASM and Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) light curves of the source, the light curves span from 1996 up to 2013.Methods: We searched for a periodic signal in the RXTE/ASM and MAXI light curves and find a common periodicity of 24.53 d. We folded the 1.3-5 keV and 5-12.1 keV RXTE/ASM light curves and the 2-4 and 4-10 keV MAXI light curves with the period of 24.53 d and detected a periodic dip. To refine the value of the period we divided the RXTE/ASM and MAXI light curves into eight and two intervals, respectively. Using the timing technique, we obtained four and two dip arrival times from the RXTE/ASM and MAXI light curves, respectively.Results: We improved the X-ray position of GX 13+1 using a recent Chandra observation. The new X-ray position is discrepant by ~7" from the previous one, while it is compatible with the infrared and radio counterpart positions. We detected an X-ray dip totally covered by the Chandra observation and showed, a posteriori, that it is a periodic dip. We obtained seven dip arrival times from RXTE/ASM, MAXI, and Chandra light curves. We calculated the delays of the detected dip arrival times with respect to the expected times for a 24.52 d periodicity. Fitting the delays with a linear function, we find that the orbital period and the epoch of reference of GX 13+1 are 24.5274(2) days and 50 086.79(3) MJD, respectively. We do not improve the fit by adopting a quadratic ephemeris. The inferred orbital period derivative of 8(37) × 10-8 s/s, with an error of 68% confidence level, does not allow us to constrain the orbital evolution of the binary system.Conclusions: We demonstrated the existence of periodic dips in both RXTE/ASM and MAXI light curves, and estimated that the orbital period of GX 13+1 is 24.5274(2) d. The LMXB GX 13+1 has the longest known orbital period for a Galactic neutron star LMXB powered by Roche lobe overflow.

AB - Context. The bright low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) GX 13+1 is one of the most peculiar Galactic binary systems. A periodicity of 24.27 d was observed in its power spectrum density obtained from data collected over 14 years by the All Sky Monitor (ASM) on board the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE).Aims: To determine the first X-ray orbital ephemeris of GX 13+1, we systematically searched for periodic dips in the RXTE/ASM and Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) light curves of the source, the light curves span from 1996 up to 2013.Methods: We searched for a periodic signal in the RXTE/ASM and MAXI light curves and find a common periodicity of 24.53 d. We folded the 1.3-5 keV and 5-12.1 keV RXTE/ASM light curves and the 2-4 and 4-10 keV MAXI light curves with the period of 24.53 d and detected a periodic dip. To refine the value of the period we divided the RXTE/ASM and MAXI light curves into eight and two intervals, respectively. Using the timing technique, we obtained four and two dip arrival times from the RXTE/ASM and MAXI light curves, respectively.Results: We improved the X-ray position of GX 13+1 using a recent Chandra observation. The new X-ray position is discrepant by ~7" from the previous one, while it is compatible with the infrared and radio counterpart positions. We detected an X-ray dip totally covered by the Chandra observation and showed, a posteriori, that it is a periodic dip. We obtained seven dip arrival times from RXTE/ASM, MAXI, and Chandra light curves. We calculated the delays of the detected dip arrival times with respect to the expected times for a 24.52 d periodicity. Fitting the delays with a linear function, we find that the orbital period and the epoch of reference of GX 13+1 are 24.5274(2) days and 50 086.79(3) MJD, respectively. We do not improve the fit by adopting a quadratic ephemeris. The inferred orbital period derivative of 8(37) × 10-8 s/s, with an error of 68% confidence level, does not allow us to constrain the orbital evolution of the binary system.Conclusions: We demonstrated the existence of periodic dips in both RXTE/ASM and MAXI light curves, and estimated that the orbital period of GX 13+1 is 24.5274(2) d. The LMXB GX 13+1 has the longest known orbital period for a Galactic neutron star LMXB powered by Roche lobe overflow.

UR - http://hdl.handle.net/10447/98855

UR - http://www.aanda.org/articles/aa/abs/2014/01/aa22328-13/aa22328-13.html

M3 - Article

VL - 561

SP - 99

EP - 109

JO - ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS

JF - ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS

SN - 0004-6361

ER -