Direct and oblique approaches to the craniovertebral junction: Nuances of microsurgical and endoscope-assisted techniques along with a review of the literature

Domenico Iacopino, Giuseppe Umana, Eldella, Giuseppe Raudino, Armando Richiello, Giuseppe Barbagallo, Antonino Germano’, Massimiliano Visocchi

Risultato della ricerca: Chapter

9 Citazioni (Scopus)


Purpose: The aim of this review is to provide an update of the technical nuances of microsurgical and endoscopic-assisted approaches to the craniovertebral junction (transnasal, transoral, and transcervical), and to report on the available clinical results in order to identify the best strategy. Methods: A nonsystematic update of the reviews and reporting on the anatomical and clinical results of endoscopic-assisted and microsurgical approaches to the craniovertebral junction (CVJ) was performed. Results: Pure endonasal and cervical endoscopic approaches still have some disadvantages, including their steep learning curves and their deeper surgical fields. Endoscopically assisted transoral surgery with 30° endoscopes represents an emerging option compared with standard microsurgical techniques for transoral approaches to the anterior CVJ. This approach should be considered as complementary to, rather than as an alternative to the traditional transoral-transpharyngeal approach. Conclusions: The transoral (microsurgical or video-assisted) approach with sparing of the soft palate still remains the gold standard compared with the “pure” transnasal and transcervical approaches, due to the wider working channel provided by the former technique. The transnasal endoscopic approach alone appears to be superior when the CVJ lesion exceeds the upper limit of the inferior third of the clivus. Of particular interest is the evidence that advances in reduction techniques can avoid the ventral approach.
Lingua originaleEnglish
Titolo della pubblicazione ospiteTrends in Reconstructive Neurosurgery: Neurorehabilitation, Restoration and Reconstruction
Numero di pagine10
Stato di pubblicazionePublished - 2017

Serie di pubblicazioni


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology

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