Different solid sulfonic titania-based catalysts were investigated for the hydrothermal dehydration of fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF). The catalytic behavior of the materials was evaluated in terms of fructose conversion and selectivity to 5-HMF. The surface and structural properties of the catalysts were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption isotherms, thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and acid capacity measurements. Special attention was focused on the reaction conditions, both in terms of 5-HMF selectivity and the sustainability of the process, choosing water as the solvent. Among the various process condition studied, TiO2-SO3H catalyzed a complete conversion (99%) of 1.1M fructose and 5-HMF selectivity (50%) and yield (50%) at 165 °C. An important improvement of the HMF selectivity (71%) was achieved when the reaction was carried out by using a lower fructose concentration (0.1M) and lower temperature (140 °C). The catalytic activities of the materials were related to their acid capacities as much as their textural properties. In particular, a counterbalance between the acidity and the structure of the pores in which the catalytic sites are located, results in the key issue for switch the selectivity towards the achievement of 5-HMF.
|Numero di pagine||12|
|Stato di pubblicazione||Published - 2020|
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