Echinacea spp. phytomedicines are popular for treating upper respiratory infections. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the immunomodulatory properties of Echinacea tinctures from seven species after being stored at -20 degrees C for 2 years. Two experimental techniques were employed using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). In the first set of experiments, PBMCs were stimulated in vitro with tinctures alone and assayed for proliferation and production of interleukin-10 (IL-10), IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). In the second set of experiments, subjects were immunized with influenza vaccine. PBMCs from vaccinated individuals were stimulated in vitro with Echinacea tinctures and influenza virus; cytokine production (IL-2, IL-10, and interferon-gamma [IFN-gamma]) was compared prevaccination and postvaccination. In the first experiments, (1) tinctures from E. angustifolia, E. pallida, E. paradoxa, and E. tennesseensis stimulated proliferation and tended to increase IL-10, (2) E. sanguinea and E. simulata stimulated only proliferation, (3) E. purpurea stimulated only IL-10, and (4) none of the extracts influenced IL-12 or TNF-alpha. In the second experiments, (1) tinctures from E. pallida, E. paradoxa, E. sanguinea, and E. simulata diminished influenza-specific IL-2, and (2) none of the extracts influenced influenza-specific IL-10 or IFN-gamma. For in vitro models using Echinacea, immune response may vary based on stimulus (Echinacea alone vs. Echinacea + recall stimulation with virus).
|Numero di pagine||12|
|Rivista||Journal of Interferon and Cytokine Research|
|Stato di pubblicazione||Published - 2007|
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