Criteri e metodi per l'ottimizzazione di sistemi di poligenerazione di piccola e media taglia - Criteria and methodologies for the optimization of small/medium scale polygeneration systems

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Abstract

The European Union has indicated in the combined heat and power production one of the most promising high efficiency technologies, fixing an ambitious "18% share of the total EU electricity production by CHP" target to be achieved at 2010 (COM/97/0514). Although it is not possible to actually achieve such results (at 2005 "only" a 12% CHP penetration was observed), efforts are being still made to promote cogeneration, due to its relevant potential in achieving primary and pollutant/GWC emissions savings with respect to he separate production of electricity and heat. Also, further benefits are related to the concept of Distributed Generation (DG), primarily in terms of reduction in transmission losses and increased safety of power supply. Today a relevant share of the CHP market is covered by large/medium size plants integrated within industrial districts or individual manufacturing processes, due to the possibility to operate conveniently the CHP unit (and, consequently, to achieve a profitable operation) where regular load profiles are concerned; currently, in Italy the average size of CHP units is in the order of 10 MWe, including the large gas or backpressure steam turbines or the even larger combined cycles. However, when depicting future scenarios concerning polygeneration market the scientific literature has been recently assigning a primary role to micro/small/medium scale CHP for applications in the civil sector (especially in the tertiary and, in some way, also the residential users); this growing interest is testified by the explicit focus of the Directive 2004/8/EC (fixing common criteria for the high efficiency CHP assessment) on "micro cogeneration" and "small scale cogeneration", defined with respect to the maximum 50 kWe and 1 MWe installed capacity, respectively. The Italian Legislative Decree n. 20/07, which pursues the goal declared in the aforementioned Directive, promotes "increases in the energetic efficiency and a higher reliability of energy supply" by defining a set of provisions concerning high efficiency polygeneration "based on a useful heat demand and on primary energy saving" (to avoid non cogenerative plants to be assessed as efficient cogeneration), basing on the specific climatic conditions in Italy. Among others, the following technologies are supported:•Reciprocate engines, either natural gas or diesel oil fuelled;•Micro gas turbines;•Stirling engines;•Fuel cells.In spite of this relevant and universally recognized potential, the installed small/micro -scale CHP capacity is still low, due to a number of obstacles; among them, a main role is probably played by a continuously changing legislative framework, which concur to increase the risk of any investment, and by the absence of specific knowledge on design and operation criteria for CHCP plants and the consequent difficulty in achieving economic viability. This research project is oriented to define a detailed knowledge on the performance of small/micro-scale CHP plants for applications in the civil sector and to elaborate methods and criteria for the optimization of design and operation. The research will involve different levels of analysis, like the modelization of several CHP technologies adopting both experimental and theoretical approaches and an in-depth understanding of the influence of components' integration on their individual performance (this aspect will be investigated for different plant lay-outs, design and boundary conditions as concerns legislative provisions and energy prices). For a full exploitation of the existing potential fo
Lingua originaleEnglish
EditoreF. Cardona, E. Piacentino
Numero di pagine378
Stato di pubblicazionePublished - 2011

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