Tumorigenesis is a multiphasic process in which genetic alterations guide the progressive transformation in cancer cells1. In order to evaluate the possible correlation between some gene variants and the risk of the toxicity development onset, two of the polymorphisms of the thymidylate synthase (TYMS), rs34743033 (2R/3R) and rs16430 (DEL/INS) were investigated. We enrolled in our study 47 patients from the Hospital of Sicily. Our preliminary findings suggest that there could be a linkage between the genotypes discussed and the development of the toxicity following the chemotherapy treatment. These results need to be confirmed by further studies, however this short paper offers some initial insight into the relationships between genetic background and the better outcome for patients..