Anthozoa is the most specious class of the phylum Cnidaria that is phylogenetically basal within the Metazoa. It is an interesting group for studying the evolution of mutualisms and immunity, for despite their morphological simplicity, Anthozoans are unexpectedly immunologically complex, with large genomes and gene families similar to those of the Bilateria. Evidence indicates that the Anthozoan innate immune system is not only involved in the disruption of harmful microorganisms, but is also crucial in structuring tissue-associated microbial communities that are essential components of the cnidarian holobiont and useful to the animal’s health for several functions including metabolism, immune defense, development, and behavior. Here, we report on the current state of the art of Anthozoan immunity. Like other invertebrates, Anthozoans possess immune mechanisms based on self/non-self-recognition. Although lacking adaptive immunity, they use a diverse repertoire of immune receptor signaling pathways (PRRs) to recognize a broad array of conserved microorganism-associated molecular patterns (MAMP). The intracellular signaling cascades lead to gene transcription up to endpoints of release of molecules that kill the pathogens, defend the self by maintaining homeostasis, and modulate the wound repair process. The cells play a fundamental role in immunity, as they display phagocytic activities and secrete mucus, which acts as a physicochemical barrier preventing or slowing down the proliferation of potential invaders. Finally, we describe the current state of knowledge of some immune effectors in Anthozoan species, including the potential role of toxins and the inflammatory response in the Mediterranean Anthozoan Anemonia viridis following injection of various foreign particles differing in type and dimensions, including pathogenetic bacteria.
|Numero di pagine||26|
|Stato di pubblicazione||Published - 2020|
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