Chaperonin Hsp60 and Cancer Therapies

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The heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60) is a chaperonin belonging to thechaperoning (chaperone) system that typically contributes to protein homeostasisinside mitochondria, but also plays various non-canonical roles unrelated to proteinquality control beyond the organelle. Chaperonopathies are disorders in whichchaperones play an etiologic-pathogenic role and contribute to the onset/progressionof disease. Hsp60 chaperonopathies by mistake are diseases in which the chaperoninis apparently normal (as far as it can be determined with current methodologies) butit actively contributes to pathology, for example in certain types of cancer, andautoimmune and chronic inflammatory disorders. In certain cancers, Hsp60 isassociated with the onset of malignancy and metastasization, although the mechanisms are poorly understood. In this chapter, we summarize findings on Hsp60quantitative changes and distribution alterations in cells and tissues accompanying tumor initiation and progression. We also discuss the potential of HSP60-based anticancer therapies that are currently being investigated.Methods Journals and data bases were surveyed, and pertinent works were chosenfor discussion.Results The data have stimulated experimental and clinical studies aiming atestablishing the usefulness of Hsp60 as biomarker for diagnosis, and for assessingprognosis and response to treatment. Likewise, investigations are ongoing on thepossible use of Hsp60 as a therapeutic agent or target. The reported results indicatethat in neoplasms, Hsp60 migrates outside its canonical location, the mitochondrion,augments in the cytoplasm and plasma-cell membrane, and exits the cell via lipidrafts-exosomes. Exosomal Hsp60 occurs in extracellular fluids such as blood,through which it reaches target cells near and far, normal or cancerous. With thesetarget cells, exosomes carrying Hsp60 and other molecules interact and, thereby,modify their functions. Thus, detection of exosomal Hsp60 in body fluids appears asa promising variety of liquid biopsy applicable to monitoring cancers alreadydiagnosed and to screen for malignancies before they are clinically manifest. Wealso discuss Hsp60-based vaccines as a novel means of eliminating cancer cells withcytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Tumor-derived Hsp60 associated with a tumorderived antigen activates CD8+ T cells and induces an antitumor immune response.It is highly probable that soon there will be implementation of clinical trials,involving the use of Hsp60 alone or in various combinations and complexes toprevent cancer progression and treat patients.Conclusions Hsp60 is actively involved in tumor development and progression. Itspresence in extracellular fluids renders it a potential non-invasive biomarker. Also,considering the antitumor activities of Hsp60 observed in some types of cancer onecan foresee a bright future for Hsp60-based therapies.
Lingua originaleEnglish
Titolo della pubblicazione ospiteHeat Shock Proteins
Numero di pagine22
Stato di pubblicazionePublished - 2020

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