Cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, and diabetes mortality burden of cardiometabolic risk factors from 1980 to 2010: a comparative risk assessment

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Abstract

Background High blood pressure, blood glucose, serum cholesterol, and BMI are risk factors for cardiovasculardiseases and some of these factors also increase the risk of chronic kidney disease and diabetes. We estimated mortality from cardiovascular diseases, chronic kidney disease, and diabetes that was attributable to these fourcardiometabolic risk factors for all countries and regions from 1980 to 2010.Methods We used data for exposure to risk factors by country, age group, and sex from pooled analyses of populationbased health surveys. We obtained relative risks for the eff ects of risk factors on cause-specifi c mortality from metaanalysesof large prospective studies. We calculated the population attributable fractions for- each risk factor alone,and for the combination of all risk factors, accounting for multicausality and for mediation of the eff ects of BMI by the other three risks. We calculated attributable deaths by multiplying the cause-specifi c population attributable fractions by the number of disease-specifi c deaths. We obtained cause-specifi c mortality from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors 2010 Study. We propagated the uncertainties of all the inputs to the fi nal estimates.Findings In 2010, high blood pressure was the leading risk factor for deaths due to cardiovascular diseases, chronic kidney disease, and diabetes in every region, causing more than 40% of worldwide deaths from these diseases; high BMI and glucose were each responsible for about 15% of deaths, and high cholesterol for more than 10%. Afteraccounting for multicausality, 63% (10·8 million deaths, 95% CI 10·1–11·5) of deaths from these diseases in 2010 were attributable to the combined eff ect of these four metabolic risk factors, compared with 67% (7·1 million deaths,6·6–7·6) in 1980. The mortality burden of high BMI and glucose nearly doubled from 1980 to 2010. At the countrylevel, age-standardised death rates from these diseases attributable to the combined eff ects of these four risk factorssurpassed 925 deaths per 100 000 for men in Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Mongolia, but were less than 130 deaths per 100 000 for women and less than 200 for men in some high-income countries including Australia, Canada, France,Japan, the Netherlands, Singapore, South Korea, and Spain.Interpretation The salient features of the cardiometabolic disease and risk factor epidemic at the beginning ofthe 21st century are high blood pressure and an increasing eff ect of obesity and diabetes. The mortality burdenof cardiometabolic risk factors has shifted from high-income to low-income and middle-income countries. Loweringcardiometabolic risks through dietary, behavioural, and pharmacological interventions should be a part of the globalresponse to non-communicable diseases.
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)634-647
Numero di pagine14
RivistaThe Lancet
Volume2
Stato di pubblicazionePublished - 2014

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology

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