The interest in sustainable agriculture has increased the demand of plant-derived compoundswhich can be less toxic both to mammals and to the environment than the synthetic agrochemicals.Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium L. (Asteraceae), commonly termed pyrethrum, is aneconomically important crop from highlands of tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It isgrown for the extraction of pyrethrins, natural insect repellents of plant origin. Pyrethrins are amixture of six compounds produced by esterification of two acids (chrysanthemic and pyrethricacid) with three mono-terpene-alcohols (pyrethrolone-5, jasmolone-3 and cinerolone-4). Theprincipale source of pyrethrins are the dried flowers of Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium. Thanks tothe low toxicity to mammals and other warm blooded animals, pyrethrum is the only plant specieswhose metabolites are currently commercially exploited in insecticides, and its worldwide demandexceeds the supply.Asteraceae species are considered as recalcitrant to successful growth in in vitro condition.Recalcitrance in root or shoot formation or in regeneration are associated to endogenous bacterialcontamination, hyperhydricity, and tissue browning, hence studies on in vitro culture ofChrysanthemum cinerariaefolium have been rather limited. The aim of this study was to establishhighly reproducible in vitro regeneration systems for an efficient multiplication of Chrysanthemumcinerariaefolium, since the pointing out of an efficient regeneration system could play an importantrole for the industrial exploitation of this plant.Petiole explants and leaf segments were used for micropropagation, callus induction andprotoplast isolation. Sterile seeds were used as plant material source. The ability of petiole cuttingsto produce direct shoot buds varied depending upon the different media composition tested for theexperiments. Growth rate of shoots as well as root induction from shoots have been periodicallyanalyzed. The in vitro raised plantlets were acclimatized and transferred to greenhouse with 60%success.For protoplast isolation and culture, young leaves of in vitro grown plants were used as initialplant material. Different enzymatic combinations were tested to achieve the highest protoplastrelease. We were able to recover a reasonable number of viable protoplast for further manipulationat the ploidy level with the aim to enhance the biological activity of Chrysanthemumcinerariaefolium and for the regeneration of novel insecticidal plant germplasm.
|Numero di pagine||0|
|Stato di pubblicazione||Published - 2011|