Biocompatibility of materials and constructive systems in the housebuilding between XIX and XX centuries

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Abstract

Biocompatibility of materials and constructive systems in thehousebuilding between XIX and XX centuryGiovanni Fatta and Calogero VinciDipartimento di Progetto e Costruzione Edilizia (DPCE)University of Palermo, Palermo, Italye-mail: fatta@dpce.ing.unipa.it; vinci@dpce.ing.unipa.itKey words: biocompatibility, sustainability, hygiene, public health, historical architectureAbstractThe new trends of building industry are a recent conquest that, in relationship to sustainability,confirm among the primary objectives to pursue requisites of materials salubriousness, hygiene andecology. Also in normative sphere, we recently are spectator of a innovation in materials idea: in manynorms the importance attributed to aspects related to ecocompatibility and biocompatibility, like theemission of particles, gas and harmful substances, of radiations results evident, and also the possibilitythat materials can contribute to micro organisms development.But before this revolution for many years, in some cases already beginning from the half of XIXcentury, were used materials potentially dangerous for human health. Basing on actual knowledge, itresults essential a profound study not only of materials and actual technological solutions, but also oftechniques and traditional materials, for estimate the possible dangers during the building constructionand fruition, maintenance or demolition. The asbestos, for example, was used already in the XIXcentury as aggregate in interior plasters, in concrete tiles, as component of linoleum, in panels, incardboards, in fabrics, "to make a mass" in paints, all these particularly insidious cases, in that fiberscould easily be detached from support because of aging.Also the lead poisoning caused by white-lead paintings use in historical buildings became in someCountries a problem of public health. Another problem that doesn't concern only the contemporaryhousebuilding is that concerning the biocides: between the XIX and XX century were used substancesbased on creosote or arsenic, and with these substances wooden parts of buildings and masonries wereimpregnated.It results therefore necessary to probe the "application history" of some materials, also in the historicalarchitecture. Some of these substances were paradoxically appreciated for their hygienic and eventherapeutics characters, therefore very diffused in hygienic-healthy typologies realized between theXIX and XX century, buildings that still constitute a not negligible part of our building patrimony.
Lingua originaleUndefined/Unknown
Pagine1-10
Stato di pubblicazionePublished - 2004

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