A method for assessing Granger causal relationships in bivariate time series, based on nonlinear autoregressive (NAR) and nonlinear autoregressive exogenous (NARX) models is presented. The method evaluates bilateral interactions between two time series by quantifying the predictability improvement (PI) of the output time series when the dynamics associated with the input time series are included, i.e., moving from NAR to NARX prediction. The NARX model identification was performed by the optimal parameter search (OPS) algorithm, and its results were compared to the least-squares method to determine the most appropriate method to be used for experimental data. The statistical significance of the PI was assessed using a surrogate data technique. The proposed method was tested with simulation examples involving short realizations of linear stochastic processes and nonlinear deterministic signals in which either unidirectional or bidirectional coupling and varying strengths of interactions were imposed. It was found that the OPS-based NARX model was accurate and sensitive in detecting imposed Granger causality conditions. In addition, the OPS-based NARX model was more accurate than the least squares method. Application to the systolic blood pressure and heart rate variability signals demonstrated the feasibility of the method. In particular, we found a bilateral causal relationship between the two signals as evidenced by the significant reduction in the PI values with the NARX model prediction compared to the NAR model prediction, which was also confirmed by the surrogate data analysis. Furthermore, we found significant reduction in the complexity of the dynamics of the two causal pathways of the two signals as the body position was changed from the supine to upright. The proposed is a general method, thus, it can be applied to a wide variety of physiological signals to better understand causality and coupling that may be different between normal and diseased conditions.
|Numero di pagine||15|
|Rivista||Annals of Biomedical Engineering|
|Stato di pubblicazione||Published - 2008|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes