Plasmonic nanoantennas (NAs) have received a growing attention in recent years due to their ability to confine light on sub-wavelength dimensions . More recently, this property has been exploited in the terahertz (THz) frequency range (0.1-10 THz) for enhanced sensing and spectroscopy , as well as for more fundamental investigations . These applications typically require high local electric fields that can be achieved by concentrating THz radiation into deeply sub-wavelength volumes located at the NAs extremities. However, the achievable near-field enhancement values are severely limited by the poor resonance quality factor of traditional rod-shaped THz NAs. Unlike what is commonly assumed in the infrared domain , here we show that an optimal NA tapering angle can be effectively introduced to obtain higher quality factors and, at least, twofold higher local near-field enhancement in comparison with standard (wire-like) dipolar THz NAs. To evaluate how the tapering angle affects the NA performance, a simplified quasi-analytical model was first developed. Each NA is considered as a truncated cone constituted by a sequence of gold cylinders of increasing radii, so that the effective refractive index of the surface mode propagating along the NA changes gradually along the main axis. Once the reflection coefficients for the surface mode at both extremities are retrieved , a NA can be interpreted as a Fabry-Perot resonator and its resonances can be analytically calculated. This model reveals a trade-off between large tapering angles (resulting in a low reflection coefficient at the large extremity) compared to small tapers (which are affected by high propagation losses for the surface mode), leading to an optimal taper angle. FEM-based simulations (COMSOL Multiphysics) were then used to confirm this prediction. 60-nm-thick gold tapered NA dimers were designed with 45-μm-long arms (in order to resonate at around 1 THz) and with their facing tips (100-nm-wide) separated by a 30 nm gap, thus realizing a bowtie geometry (Fig. 1a). We numerically investigated the near-field enhancement in the gap between the NAs, varying the tapering angle α from 0° to 10°.
|Titolo della pubblicazione ospite||2019 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe and European Quantum Electronics Conference, CLEO|
|Numero di pagine||1|
|Stato di pubblicazione||Published - 2019|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
- Computer Networks and Communications