Abstract

The purpose of this study was to determine the probability of soccer players having the best genetic background that could increase performance, evaluating the polymorphism that are considered Performance Enhancing Polymorphism (PEPs) distributed on five genes: PPAR alpha, PPARGC1A, NRF2, ACE e CKMM. Particularly, we investigated how each polymorphism works directly or through another polymorphism to distinguish elite athletes from non-athletic population. Sixty professional soccer players (age 22.5 +/- 2.2) and sixty healthy volunteers (age 21.2 +/- 2.3) were enrolled. Samples of venous blood was used to prepare genomic DNA. The polymorphic sites were scanned using PCR-RFLP protocols with different enzyme. We used a multivariate logistic regression analysis to demonstrate an association between the five PEPs and elite phenotype. We found statistical significance in NRF2 (AG/GG genotype) polymorphism/soccer players association (p < 0.05) as well as a stronger association in ACE polymorphism (p = 0.02). Particularly, we noticed that the ACE ID genotype and even more the II genotype are associated with soccer player phenotype. Although the other PEPs had no statistical significance, we proved that some of these may work indirectly, amplifying the effect of another polymorphism; for example, seems that PPAR alpha could acts on NRF2 (GG) enhancing the effect of the latter, notwithstanding it had not shown a statistical significance.In conclusion, to establish if a polymorphism can influence the performance, it is necessary to understand how they act and interact, directly and indirectly, on each other.
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)87-92
Numero di pagine6
RivistaEuropean Journal of Translational Myology
Volume28
Stato di pubblicazionePublished - 2018

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Soccer
Athletes
Phenotype
PPAR alpha
Genotype
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms
Healthy Volunteers
Logistic Models
Regression Analysis
Polymerase Chain Reaction
DNA
Enzymes
Population
Genes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Cell Biology
  • Molecular Biology

Cita questo

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title = "An innovative way to highlight the power of each polymorphism on elite athletes phenotype expression",
abstract = "The purpose of this study was to determine the probability of soccer players having the best genetic background that could increase performance, evaluating the polymorphism that are considered Performance Enhancing Polymorphism (PEPs) distributed on five genes: PPAR alpha, PPARGC1A, NRF2, ACE e CKMM. Particularly, we investigated how each polymorphism works directly or through another polymorphism to distinguish elite athletes from non-athletic population. Sixty professional soccer players (age 22.5 +/- 2.2) and sixty healthy volunteers (age 21.2 +/- 2.3) were enrolled. Samples of venous blood was used to prepare genomic DNA. The polymorphic sites were scanned using PCR-RFLP protocols with different enzyme. We used a multivariate logistic regression analysis to demonstrate an association between the five PEPs and elite phenotype. We found statistical significance in NRF2 (AG/GG genotype) polymorphism/soccer players association (p < 0.05) as well as a stronger association in ACE polymorphism (p = 0.02). Particularly, we noticed that the ACE ID genotype and even more the II genotype are associated with soccer player phenotype. Although the other PEPs had no statistical significance, we proved that some of these may work indirectly, amplifying the effect of another polymorphism; for example, seems that PPAR alpha could acts on NRF2 (GG) enhancing the effect of the latter, notwithstanding it had not shown a statistical significance.In conclusion, to establish if a polymorphism can influence the performance, it is necessary to understand how they act and interact, directly and indirectly, on each other.",
keywords = "Cell Biology, Molecular Biology, Neurology (clinical), Orthopedics and Sports Medicine, Performance, Performance-enhancing polymorphisms, Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism",
author = "Antonino Abbruzzo and Valentina Contro' and Antonio Palma and Patrizia Proia and Gabriella Schiera and Antonino Bianco",
year = "2018",
language = "English",
volume = "28",
pages = "87--92",
journal = "European Journal of Translational Myology",
issn = "2037-7452",
publisher = "PagePress Publications",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - An innovative way to highlight the power of each polymorphism on elite athletes phenotype expression

AU - Abbruzzo, Antonino

AU - Contro', Valentina

AU - Palma, Antonio

AU - Proia, Patrizia

AU - Schiera, Gabriella

AU - Bianco, Antonino

PY - 2018

Y1 - 2018

N2 - The purpose of this study was to determine the probability of soccer players having the best genetic background that could increase performance, evaluating the polymorphism that are considered Performance Enhancing Polymorphism (PEPs) distributed on five genes: PPAR alpha, PPARGC1A, NRF2, ACE e CKMM. Particularly, we investigated how each polymorphism works directly or through another polymorphism to distinguish elite athletes from non-athletic population. Sixty professional soccer players (age 22.5 +/- 2.2) and sixty healthy volunteers (age 21.2 +/- 2.3) were enrolled. Samples of venous blood was used to prepare genomic DNA. The polymorphic sites were scanned using PCR-RFLP protocols with different enzyme. We used a multivariate logistic regression analysis to demonstrate an association between the five PEPs and elite phenotype. We found statistical significance in NRF2 (AG/GG genotype) polymorphism/soccer players association (p < 0.05) as well as a stronger association in ACE polymorphism (p = 0.02). Particularly, we noticed that the ACE ID genotype and even more the II genotype are associated with soccer player phenotype. Although the other PEPs had no statistical significance, we proved that some of these may work indirectly, amplifying the effect of another polymorphism; for example, seems that PPAR alpha could acts on NRF2 (GG) enhancing the effect of the latter, notwithstanding it had not shown a statistical significance.In conclusion, to establish if a polymorphism can influence the performance, it is necessary to understand how they act and interact, directly and indirectly, on each other.

AB - The purpose of this study was to determine the probability of soccer players having the best genetic background that could increase performance, evaluating the polymorphism that are considered Performance Enhancing Polymorphism (PEPs) distributed on five genes: PPAR alpha, PPARGC1A, NRF2, ACE e CKMM. Particularly, we investigated how each polymorphism works directly or through another polymorphism to distinguish elite athletes from non-athletic population. Sixty professional soccer players (age 22.5 +/- 2.2) and sixty healthy volunteers (age 21.2 +/- 2.3) were enrolled. Samples of venous blood was used to prepare genomic DNA. The polymorphic sites were scanned using PCR-RFLP protocols with different enzyme. We used a multivariate logistic regression analysis to demonstrate an association between the five PEPs and elite phenotype. We found statistical significance in NRF2 (AG/GG genotype) polymorphism/soccer players association (p < 0.05) as well as a stronger association in ACE polymorphism (p = 0.02). Particularly, we noticed that the ACE ID genotype and even more the II genotype are associated with soccer player phenotype. Although the other PEPs had no statistical significance, we proved that some of these may work indirectly, amplifying the effect of another polymorphism; for example, seems that PPAR alpha could acts on NRF2 (GG) enhancing the effect of the latter, notwithstanding it had not shown a statistical significance.In conclusion, to establish if a polymorphism can influence the performance, it is necessary to understand how they act and interact, directly and indirectly, on each other.

KW - Cell Biology

KW - Molecular Biology

KW - Neurology (clinical)

KW - Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

KW - Performance

KW - Performance-enhancing polymorphisms

KW - Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism

UR - http://hdl.handle.net/10447/293370

UR - https://www.pagepressjournals.org/index.php/bam/article/download/7186/7018

M3 - Article

VL - 28

SP - 87

EP - 92

JO - European Journal of Translational Myology

JF - European Journal of Translational Myology

SN - 2037-7452

ER -