A possible biomarker for methadone related deaths

Farè, F; Roda, G; Gambaro, V; Karch, Sb

Risultato della ricerca: Article

1 Citazione (Scopus)

Abstract

Methadone (MTH) concentrations in those dying of MTH toxicity totally overlap concentrations where the presence of MTH is only an incidental finding, making it very difficult to make distinctions in actual cases. A biomarker, be it anatomical or biochemical for MTH toxicity is badly needed, particularly if that markers were known to disrupt effective ventilation. Because the brainstem houses the regulatory centers for cardiorespiratory-control enters, it would seem to be the most likely anatomical site to seek abnormalities in cardiorespiratory control. Objective: To locate and describe the cells of nucleus of the solitary tract (TS)(NTS) in human brainstem and determine if neuronal cell death, either necrotic or apoptotic, within the TS of humans is more common in deaths due directly to MTH toxicity than with in the solitary tract itself. Design, setting, participants: This was a single cohort study of MTH related decedents autopsied at a large university hospital. Each decedent had a recent history of non medical/illicit MTH use and had been pronounced dead in the field, prior to ever reaching the hospital. Complete autopsy and complete toxicology testing were performed on the formalin fixed brains of each individual. Multiple blocks were prepared of the area of interest, namely the tissue lying immediately between the inferior and the super colliculi. This volume, by definition, would have included the area of the Rostral Ventrolateral Medulla (RVLM), the location of the TS. Immunohistochemistry studies utilizing caspase-9 reaction (a protease enzyme involved in the process of preprogrammed death) were performed in order to estimate the degree and proportion of neuronal apoptosis, and also access the degree of classical necrosis within the NTS. Main outcomes and measures: The primary outcome measure was the presence or absence of neuronal apoptosis and/or necrosis within the NTS. Results: Cells displaying evidence of early apoptosis and advanced apoptosis, consisting primarily of nuclear fragmentation, admixed with other neurons displaying the features of classic necrosis were found. Evidence of classic necrosis was identifiable in most of the controls, though minor degrees of apoptosis were identifiable with Caspase staining and quantitative image analysis of immunohistochemical stains. Conclusions: and Relevance: Our study shows that neurons, primarily along the TS, but occasionally in other cell nuclei (even controls) are vulnerable, both to direct MTH toxicity (via apoptosis) and indirectly (via hypoxia leading to classical cell necrosis). When MTH is found to be present in significant concentrations, but apoptotic lesions are absent, it would be reasonable to assume that MTH was not primarily the cause of cardiorespiratory arrest.
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)8-14
Numero di pagine7
RivistaJournal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Volume49
Stato di pubblicazionePublished - 2017

Fingerprint

Methadone
Biomarkers
death
Necrosis
Apoptosis
dying
fragmentation
evidence
brain
Cell Nucleus
cause
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Neurons
history
Solitary Nucleus
Incidental Findings
Caspase 9
Caspases
Formaldehyde
Brain Stem

Cita questo

Farè, F; Roda, G; Gambaro, V; Karch, Sb (2017). A possible biomarker for methadone related deaths. Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, 49, 8-14.

A possible biomarker for methadone related deaths. / Farè, F; Roda, G; Gambaro, V; Karch, Sb.

In: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, Vol. 49, 2017, pag. 8-14.

Risultato della ricerca: Article

Farè, F; Roda, G; Gambaro, V; Karch, Sb 2017, 'A possible biomarker for methadone related deaths', Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, vol. 49, pagg. 8-14.
Farè, F; Roda, G; Gambaro, V; Karch, Sb. A possible biomarker for methadone related deaths. Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine. 2017;49:8-14.
Farè, F; Roda, G; Gambaro, V; Karch, Sb. / A possible biomarker for methadone related deaths. In: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine. 2017 ; Vol. 49. pagg. 8-14.
@article{0120c378691e4b3ebf648c1d296a30a3,
title = "A possible biomarker for methadone related deaths",
abstract = "Methadone (MTH) concentrations in those dying of MTH toxicity totally overlap concentrations where the presence of MTH is only an incidental finding, making it very difficult to make distinctions in actual cases. A biomarker, be it anatomical or biochemical for MTH toxicity is badly needed, particularly if that markers were known to disrupt effective ventilation. Because the brainstem houses the regulatory centers for cardiorespiratory-control enters, it would seem to be the most likely anatomical site to seek abnormalities in cardiorespiratory control. Objective: To locate and describe the cells of nucleus of the solitary tract (TS)(NTS) in human brainstem and determine if neuronal cell death, either necrotic or apoptotic, within the TS of humans is more common in deaths due directly to MTH toxicity than with in the solitary tract itself. Design, setting, participants: This was a single cohort study of MTH related decedents autopsied at a large university hospital. Each decedent had a recent history of non medical/illicit MTH use and had been pronounced dead in the field, prior to ever reaching the hospital. Complete autopsy and complete toxicology testing were performed on the formalin fixed brains of each individual. Multiple blocks were prepared of the area of interest, namely the tissue lying immediately between the inferior and the super colliculi. This volume, by definition, would have included the area of the Rostral Ventrolateral Medulla (RVLM), the location of the TS. Immunohistochemistry studies utilizing caspase-9 reaction (a protease enzyme involved in the process of preprogrammed death) were performed in order to estimate the degree and proportion of neuronal apoptosis, and also access the degree of classical necrosis within the NTS. Main outcomes and measures: The primary outcome measure was the presence or absence of neuronal apoptosis and/or necrosis within the NTS. Results: Cells displaying evidence of early apoptosis and advanced apoptosis, consisting primarily of nuclear fragmentation, admixed with other neurons displaying the features of classic necrosis were found. Evidence of classic necrosis was identifiable in most of the controls, though minor degrees of apoptosis were identifiable with Caspase staining and quantitative image analysis of immunohistochemical stains. Conclusions: and Relevance: Our study shows that neurons, primarily along the TS, but occasionally in other cell nuclei (even controls) are vulnerable, both to direct MTH toxicity (via apoptosis) and indirectly (via hypoxia leading to classical cell necrosis). When MTH is found to be present in significant concentrations, but apoptotic lesions are absent, it would be reasonable to assume that MTH was not primarily the cause of cardiorespiratory arrest.",
author = "{Far{\`e}, F; Roda, G; Gambaro, V; Karch, Sb} and Paolo Procaccianti and Antonina Argo and Alessandro Pitruzzella and Uzzo, {Maria Laura} and Spatola, {Giovanni Francesco} and Cettina Sortino and Stefania Zerbo and Antonietta Lanzarone",
year = "2017",
language = "English",
volume = "49",
pages = "8--14",
journal = "Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine",
issn = "1752-928X",
publisher = "Churchill Livingstone",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - A possible biomarker for methadone related deaths

AU - Farè, F; Roda, G; Gambaro, V; Karch, Sb

AU - Procaccianti, Paolo

AU - Argo, Antonina

AU - Pitruzzella, Alessandro

AU - Uzzo, Maria Laura

AU - Spatola, Giovanni Francesco

AU - Sortino, Cettina

AU - Zerbo, Stefania

AU - Lanzarone, Antonietta

PY - 2017

Y1 - 2017

N2 - Methadone (MTH) concentrations in those dying of MTH toxicity totally overlap concentrations where the presence of MTH is only an incidental finding, making it very difficult to make distinctions in actual cases. A biomarker, be it anatomical or biochemical for MTH toxicity is badly needed, particularly if that markers were known to disrupt effective ventilation. Because the brainstem houses the regulatory centers for cardiorespiratory-control enters, it would seem to be the most likely anatomical site to seek abnormalities in cardiorespiratory control. Objective: To locate and describe the cells of nucleus of the solitary tract (TS)(NTS) in human brainstem and determine if neuronal cell death, either necrotic or apoptotic, within the TS of humans is more common in deaths due directly to MTH toxicity than with in the solitary tract itself. Design, setting, participants: This was a single cohort study of MTH related decedents autopsied at a large university hospital. Each decedent had a recent history of non medical/illicit MTH use and had been pronounced dead in the field, prior to ever reaching the hospital. Complete autopsy and complete toxicology testing were performed on the formalin fixed brains of each individual. Multiple blocks were prepared of the area of interest, namely the tissue lying immediately between the inferior and the super colliculi. This volume, by definition, would have included the area of the Rostral Ventrolateral Medulla (RVLM), the location of the TS. Immunohistochemistry studies utilizing caspase-9 reaction (a protease enzyme involved in the process of preprogrammed death) were performed in order to estimate the degree and proportion of neuronal apoptosis, and also access the degree of classical necrosis within the NTS. Main outcomes and measures: The primary outcome measure was the presence or absence of neuronal apoptosis and/or necrosis within the NTS. Results: Cells displaying evidence of early apoptosis and advanced apoptosis, consisting primarily of nuclear fragmentation, admixed with other neurons displaying the features of classic necrosis were found. Evidence of classic necrosis was identifiable in most of the controls, though minor degrees of apoptosis were identifiable with Caspase staining and quantitative image analysis of immunohistochemical stains. Conclusions: and Relevance: Our study shows that neurons, primarily along the TS, but occasionally in other cell nuclei (even controls) are vulnerable, both to direct MTH toxicity (via apoptosis) and indirectly (via hypoxia leading to classical cell necrosis). When MTH is found to be present in significant concentrations, but apoptotic lesions are absent, it would be reasonable to assume that MTH was not primarily the cause of cardiorespiratory arrest.

AB - Methadone (MTH) concentrations in those dying of MTH toxicity totally overlap concentrations where the presence of MTH is only an incidental finding, making it very difficult to make distinctions in actual cases. A biomarker, be it anatomical or biochemical for MTH toxicity is badly needed, particularly if that markers were known to disrupt effective ventilation. Because the brainstem houses the regulatory centers for cardiorespiratory-control enters, it would seem to be the most likely anatomical site to seek abnormalities in cardiorespiratory control. Objective: To locate and describe the cells of nucleus of the solitary tract (TS)(NTS) in human brainstem and determine if neuronal cell death, either necrotic or apoptotic, within the TS of humans is more common in deaths due directly to MTH toxicity than with in the solitary tract itself. Design, setting, participants: This was a single cohort study of MTH related decedents autopsied at a large university hospital. Each decedent had a recent history of non medical/illicit MTH use and had been pronounced dead in the field, prior to ever reaching the hospital. Complete autopsy and complete toxicology testing were performed on the formalin fixed brains of each individual. Multiple blocks were prepared of the area of interest, namely the tissue lying immediately between the inferior and the super colliculi. This volume, by definition, would have included the area of the Rostral Ventrolateral Medulla (RVLM), the location of the TS. Immunohistochemistry studies utilizing caspase-9 reaction (a protease enzyme involved in the process of preprogrammed death) were performed in order to estimate the degree and proportion of neuronal apoptosis, and also access the degree of classical necrosis within the NTS. Main outcomes and measures: The primary outcome measure was the presence or absence of neuronal apoptosis and/or necrosis within the NTS. Results: Cells displaying evidence of early apoptosis and advanced apoptosis, consisting primarily of nuclear fragmentation, admixed with other neurons displaying the features of classic necrosis were found. Evidence of classic necrosis was identifiable in most of the controls, though minor degrees of apoptosis were identifiable with Caspase staining and quantitative image analysis of immunohistochemical stains. Conclusions: and Relevance: Our study shows that neurons, primarily along the TS, but occasionally in other cell nuclei (even controls) are vulnerable, both to direct MTH toxicity (via apoptosis) and indirectly (via hypoxia leading to classical cell necrosis). When MTH is found to be present in significant concentrations, but apoptotic lesions are absent, it would be reasonable to assume that MTH was not primarily the cause of cardiorespiratory arrest.

UR - http://hdl.handle.net/10447/227698

M3 - Article

VL - 49

SP - 8

EP - 14

JO - Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine

JF - Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine

SN - 1752-928X

ER -