Several chemokines/chemokine receptors such as CCR7, CXCR4 and CXCR5 attract chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells to specific microenvironments. Here we have investigated whether the CX(3)CR1/CX(3)CL1 axis is involved in the interaction of CLL with their microenvironment. CLL cells from 52 patients expressed surface CX(3)CR1 and CX(3)CL1 and released constitutively soluble CX(3)CL1. One third of these were attracted in vitro by soluble CX(3)CL1. CX(3)CL1-induced phosphorylation of PI3K, Erk1/2, p38, Akt and Src was involved in induction of CLL chemotaxis. Leukemic B cells upregulated CXCR4 upon incubation with CX(3)CL1 and this was paralleled by increased chemotaxis to CXCL12. Akt phosphorylation was involved in CX(3)CL1-induced upregulation of CXCR4 on CLL. In proliferation centers from CLL lymph node and bone marrow, CX(3)CL1 was expressed by CLL cells whereas CX(3)CR1 was detected in CLL and stromal cells. Nurselike cells (NLCs) generated from CLL patient blood co-expressed surface CX(3)CR1 and CX(3)CL1, but did not secrete soluble CX(3)CL1. Only half of NLC cell fractions were attracted in vitro by CX(3)CL1. In conclusion, the CX(3)CR1/CX(3)CL1 system may contribute to interactions between CLL cells and tumor microenvironment by increasing CXCL12-mediated attraction of leukemic cells to NLC and promoting directly adhesion of CLL cells to NLC.
|Numero di pagine||10|
|Stato di pubblicazione||Published - 2011|
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