Purpose: The aim of the present study was to assess vitamin D levels in a large cohort of OSA patients and to investigate possible correlations with clinical and polysomnographic parameters. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 685 consecutive patients underwent type 1 polysomnography (PSG) for OSA diagnosis. They were grouped according to apnea–hypopnea index (AHI) as mild, moderate, and severe. Patients with AHI < 5 served as controls. Demographic, PSG data, and serum levels of vitamin D were measured and compared between groups. Results: OSA was diagnosed in 617 of the patients (90%). Of those, 94 (15%) had mild OSA, 150 (24%) moderate OSA, and 373 (61%) severe OSA. The risk of vitamin D deficiency (< 20 ng/mL) was observed in 38% of the cohort. OSA patients had lower vitamin D levels compared to controls (23 ng/mL vs 26 ng/mL, p = 0.006). The lowest levels of vitamin D [mean 21] (p < 0.001 among all groups) and the higher prevalence for vitamin D deficiency (45%) were observed in severe OSA patients. After multiparametric adjustments for age, gender, obesity, and comorbidities, severe OSA showed significant independent associations with the risk of vitamin D deficiency [OR (95% CI) 2.002 (1.049–3.819), p = 0.035]. Conclusions: A large proportion of patients referred for OSA evaluation had vitamin D deficiency, which was independently associated with severe OSA. However, further research is needed in order to determine the role of vitamin D in OSA patients.
- Clinical Neurology