Transforming growth factor β (CiTGF-β) gene expression is induced in the inflammatory reaction of Ciona intestinalis

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Transforming growth factor (TGF-β) is a well-known component of a regulatory cytokinessuperfamily that has pleiotropic functions in a broad range of cell types and is involved, invertebrates, in numerous physiological and pathological processes. In the current study, we reporton Ciona intestinalis molecular characterisation and expression of a transforming growth factor βhomologue (CiTGF-β). The gene organisation, phylogenetic tree and modelling supported the closerelationship with the mammalian TGF suggesting that the C. intestinalis TGF-β gene shares acommon ancestor in the chordate lineages. Functionally, real-time PCR analysis showed thatCiTGF-β was transcriptionally upregulated in the inflammatory process induced by LPSinoculation, suggesting that is involved in the first phase and significant in the secondary phase ofthe inflammatory response in which cell differentiation occurs. In situ hybridisation assays revealedthat the genes transcription was upregulated in the pharynx, the main organ of the ascidian immunesystem, and expressed by cluster of hemocytes inside the pharynx vessels. These data supported theview that CiTGF-β is a potential molecule in immune defence systems against bacterial infection.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)102-110
Number of pages9
JournalDevelopmental and Comparative Immunology
Publication statusPublished - 2016

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Immunology
  • Developmental Biology


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