In Italy, as in many European countries, agriculture and domestic work are sectors characterised by high levels of irregular work without contract and with no respect of minimum pay, humane living conditions or access to basic services. Generalised informality however sometimes leads to cases of sever exploitation and outright human trafficking. This report focuses on the conditions that can lead from irregular work to abuse and trafficking in agriculture and domestic work – we question the cultural and economic aspects that make such situations possible. We also review the relevant legislation punishing exploiters and protecting victims with a view of identifying existing gaps and make suggestions for improvement. Indeed while the Italian legal framework is particularly progressive as regards the assistance and protection of victims of trafficking and severe exploitation, related legal practices and implementation of policies on the ground suffer from several shortcomings. For instance, the implementation of Article 18 of Legislative Decree No. 286/1998, which provides victims of exploitation and trafficking with special protection and assistance as well as with a residence permit for humanitarian reasons, has been arbitrary and inconsistent throughout the country, especially in cases of labour exploitation. In addition, Italy has inadequately transposed into national law Directive 2011/36/EU on trafficking and lacks a comprehensive law on labour exploitation. In recent years anti-trafficking interventions have not been a priority and programmes for assistance of victims of trafficking and severe exploitation have been under-funded. There is no effective system of data collection on the victims participating in these programmes; the national plan against trafficking has been adopted only recently (February 2016) after a severe delay of more than one year with respect to the established deadline; there is a lack of structured campaigns against trafficking and serious exploitation. This report stresses the need for an integrated and comprehensive approach to trafficking and labour exploitation in agriculture and domestic work and makes specific recommendations for each of the two sectors.
|Number of pages||48|
|Publication status||Published - 2016|