Three-dimensional (3D) versus two-dimensional (2D) laparoscopic adrenalectomy: A case-control study

Roberto Citarrella, Giorgio Romano, Gaspare Gulotta, Giuseppe Di Buono, Massimo Galia, Antonino Agrusa, Daniela Chianetta, Laura Vernuccio, Vincenzo Sorce

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

31 Citations (Scopus)


Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is today considered the gold standard of treatment for adrenal tumors. The development of high definition cameras does not eliminate the major limitation of two-dimensional (2D) laparoscopy: lack of depth perception and loss of spatial orientation. Tree-dimensional (3D) HD laparoscopy was developed as an alternative to conventional 2D laparoscopy.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)114-117
Number of pages4
JournalInternational Journal of Surgery
Publication statusPublished - 2016


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Surgery

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