THE BIA VECTOR IN OBESITY AND DIABETES

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Abstract

Although the assessment of body water compartments is of great diagnostic value, appropriate methods arenot readily available for routinely clinical application. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a safe, noninvasive,rapid and highly reproducible procedure that is strongly influenced by body water and intra-/extracellulardistribution. Four-hundred-fifty-six adults (224 males and 232 females) were enrolled and divided insubgroups on the basis of the presence of obesity and diabetes (type 1 and type 2). The aim of the studywas to investigate if different BIA measurements in terms of resistance (R), reactance (Xc) and phase angle(PA) were associated to these conditions. Plotting the average values of R and Xc normalized for height (h),a mean vector was obtained for each group. The vector displacement could be easily recognized on thebasis of its length and of the angle described with the abscises axis (PA). When compared to the controlgroups, the vector resulted to be shorter in presence of obesity. The PA was slightly lower in the diabeticgroups when compared to their body size matched non-diabetic groups. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) wasindependently correlated to height normalized R (R/h) as in diabetic males (r= 0.40; P< 0.001) and indiabetic females (r= 0.50; P< 0.001). On the basis of BIA principles, these results are in agreement with thepossibility that non diabetic obese patients have an increased body-water content but in average theymaintain a distribution between intra- (ICW) and extra-cellular (ECW) water compartments similar to that ofcontrol subjects. Furthermore, diabetics have an increased ECW size and, as expected, with increasing FPGtheir body water content proportionally decreases. As a partial confirmation, the BIA vector of 9 diabeticswith poor glycemic control was monitored during the course of rehydrating treatment. The BIA vector becameprogressively shorter but the PA remained unchanged. Therefore, the evolution of the BIA vector was in thesense of a progressive increase of total body water content, equally distributed between ICW and ECWcompartments. In conclusion, BIA measurements could be considered as specific body characteristics thatexpressed in terms of BIA vector may be useful to diagnose and monitoring imbalances of body watercompartments.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages1
Publication statusPublished - 2013

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