Smartness, City Efficiency and Entrepreneurship Milieu

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


The definition of smart city and its measurement are not shared. Different characteristics define a cityas smart, which is strictly linked to urban efficiency and to entrepreneurship spirit in a multifacetedway as well as to citizens’ well-being. On the basis of the comparison between city and entrepreneurbehaviour and on the definition of Giffinger et al. (2007) of smart city, this chapter verifies the efficiencyof a sample of European cities using a stochastic frontier approach. Departing from this analysis, thechapter develops the relative smartness definition based on the efficient use of its own resources andrelated to the different context. Moreover, as a city becomes close to the optimal value, the frontier willshift upward because of the more attractiveness and a new adjustment mechanism should be followedto become efficient again (virtuous cycle). Then, the concept of smartness becomes dynamic. This definition,taking into account city’s performance, is able to sustain the entrepreneurship milieu of a city.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationHandbook of Research on Entrepreneurial Development and Innovation Within Smart Cities
Number of pages26
Publication statusPublished - 2017


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