Salvaguardia della biodiversità

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Abstract

[automatically translated] TEACHERS NSIAs BIODIVERSITY: AN ESSENTIAL RESOURCE OF NATURE. KNOWLEDGE AND DEVELOPMENT THROUGH THE SCHOOL Botanical Garden Palermo - February 18, 2011 THE PROTECTION OF PLANT BIODIVERSITY Anna Scialabba Department of Environmental Biology and Biodiversity, Via Archirafi, 90123 Palermo 38. Biological diversity - which is the set of differences in ecosystems, species and genes - was, until a few decades ago, a field almost exclusively investigated by biologists; It is in fact only relatively recently that the awareness of the progressive impoverishment of the world's biological heritage has placed a number of ethical, legal, economic and political factors that led to the ratification of the Convention on Biodiversity in Rio in 2002 and to cooperation between universities , research organizations and institutions that combine education, scientific research, innovation and experimentation. Adverse climatic and environmental conditions and the reduction of genetic variability, also due to failure of sexual reproduction, endanger the survival of the species. The loss of plant biodiversity is not always clearly visible because the number of individuals in a population can be high, since reproduction occurs asexually, but the risk of extinction remains because of poor genetic variability of the offspring. The preservation of biodiversity requires a holistic approach and is achieved through integrated actions of preservation and conservation that require professionals capable of managing the "biocomplexity". The preservation is based on knowledge of the intrinsic and extrinsic value of biodiversity and the sustainable use allows resource planning, for example, the savings of natural resources and regeneration of each ecological and economic system. The conservation of biodiversity is based on knowledge of the biological heritage taxonomic, genetic, physiological and biocenotico and is achieved by using conservation techniques integrated in situ and ex situ conservation of germplasm. For germplasm is any material that can transmit hereditary characteristics from generation to generation. It can be said that it represents the physical basis of genetic transmission or the sum of genes and cytoplasmic factors that regenerates inheritance. The in situ conservation is optimal to preserve biodiversity of a large number of species in places of origin while the ex situ conservation is suitable to preserve the genetic variation within a single species (in this case one speaks of the whole conservation of the genes of all the individuals belonging to a certain population). The principal of conservation ex situ techniques of plant germplasm relevant to the conservation of the seeds (in germplasm banks), or portions of plants (in in vitro cultures), or whole plants (in experimental fields), or of the embryos and / or parts of plants (in the cryogenic environment). The germplasm bank of the Botanical Garden of Palermo Hortus Botanicus Panormitanus (HBP) has realized in 1993 the project of ex situ conservation of wild plants of the Mediterranean.
Original languageItalian
Number of pages0
Publication statusPublished - 2011

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