Resistance test guided retreatment of HCV infected patients with a previous failure to a NS5A inhibitor-containing regimen: the Italian Vironet C real life experience

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Abstract

Previous article in issueNext article in issueIntroduction: There is a limited documentation about the retreatment of patients failing a recommended NS5A-containing regimen in Italy.Materials & methods: Within the VIRONET-C network, 386 NS5A-failing patients infected with different HCV-genotypes (GT) (GT1a/1b/2a-c/3a-b-g-h/4a-d-n-o-v=93/124/19/112/38) were analyzed. Retreatment of 105 failures was investigated. HCV-resistance-test was performed by Sanger-sequencing.Results: Failures following seven different NS5A-containing regimens were studied: 3D/2D (paritaprevir/ombitasvir ± dasabuvir) ± ribavirin (N = 72/4), daclatasvir/ledipasvir/velpatasvir + sofosbuvir ± ribavirin (N = 105/131/20), grazoprevir/elbasvir ± ribavirin (N = 34), glecaprevir/pibrentasvir (N = 20). Notably, 18.1% of NS5A-failing patients did not show any resistance-associated-substitutions (RAS), while 81.9% showed at least one NS5A-RAS, with multiclass-resistance in 35.5%. NS5A-RAS were observed more frequently in glecaprevir/pibrentasvir failures (GT1a 83.3%: Y93H + Q30H/D or +H58D; GT3a: 83.3% Y93H + A30K/G or +L31I) compared to sofosbuvir/velpatasvir (GT1a 16.6%: Y93H + Q30H, p = 0.08; GT3a 20.0%: Y93H/N + A30K/T, p = 0.03).To date, 105 failures have started a retreatment: sofosbuvir/velpatasvir ± ribavirin (N = 30), sofosbuvir/velpatasvir/voxilaprevir ± ribavirin (N = 67), glecaprevir/pibrentasvir (N = 4), grazoprevir/elbasvir ± sofosbuvir + ribavirin (N = 3), 3D + sofosbuvir + ribavirin (N = 1). The majority of patients were cirrhotic (51.9%) and relapsers (87.5%). The prevalence of NS5A-RASs before retreatment was 80.9%, with multiclass-resistance 29.5%. Among patients completing post-retreatment follow-up, a sustained-viral-response at week 12 (SVR12) was observed in 26/33 (78.8%). SVR4 was documented in 49/56 (87.5%). SVR12 was 76.0% with sofosbuvir/velpatasvir ± ribavirin (N = 25).Differently, SVR12 was 100% with glecaprevir/pibrentasvir for 8/12/16 weeks (N = 3), grazoprevir/elbasvir ± sofosbuvir + ribavirin for 12/24 weeks (N = 3) or 3D + sofosbuvir + ribavirin for 24 weeks (N = 1), despite the presence of NS5A-RASs.Until now, 67 patients started sofosbuvir/velpatasvir/voxilaprevir ± ribavirin recommended-retreatment for 12 weeks. 54/67 (80.6%) showed at least one baseline NS5A-RAS, 23/67 (34.3%) multiple-NS5A-RASs, and 22/67 (32.8%) multiclass-resistance. Of 25 patients with available outcome, 96.0% had SVR4. Only 1 GT1b infected patient was non-responder, without RASs before retreatment.Conclusions: In this real-life setting, NS5A-RASs were frequently detected at failure, and multiclass-resistance was around 30%. Overall, SVR after resistance-test-guided retreatment was >95%, with the exception of the sofosbuvir/velpatasvir retreatment. Our results show how HCV resistance-test at failure may be useful to optimize retreatment strategies.
Original languageEnglish
Pagese53-e54
Number of pages1
Publication statusPublished - 2019

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