Prelingual sensorineural hearing loss and infants at risk: Western Sicily report

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Abstract

Objective: To evaluate independent etiologic factor associated with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in newborn at risk; to study the role of their interaction especially in NICU infants who present often multiple risk factors for SNHL. Methods: The main risk factors for SNHL reported by JCIH 2007 were evaluated on 508 infant at risk ranging from 4 to 20 weeks of life, transferred to the Audiology Department of Palermo from the main births centers of Western Sicily. After a global audiological assessment, performed with TEOAE, tympanometry and ABR, the prevalence and the effect of risk factors was statistically studied through univariate and multivariate analysis on the total population (normal and deaf subjects). Results: Fifty-one infants (10.03%) were diagnosed with SNHL (45 bilateral and 6 monolateral) with a mean hearing threshold of 87.39 ± 28.25 dB HL; from logistic regression analysis family history of hearing impairment (HI) and TORCH infections resulted independent significant risk factors (P < 0.00001 and P = 0.024 respectively). High SNHL percentages were evidenced also in NICU babies, due to the various pathologies and risk factors presented by these infants, and among newborns who suffered from hyperbilirubinemia requiring exchange transfusion (11.97% and 9.52% respectively). Craniofacial abnormalities (CFA) and syndromes associated to HI showed an important relationship (P < 0.00001) with conductive hearing loss (CHL). Multiple regression analysis of the variation in SNHL among NICU infants evidenced an increased risk for SNHL of 21.24% and of 19.33% respectively in preterm infants and in case of hyperbilirubinemia if respiratory distress is concomitant with these risk factors. It was also observed an higher risk of SNHL (99.66%) in case of coexistence of prematurity and hyperbilirubinemia. Finally among infants with very low birth weight (VLBW) it was evidenced a statistically difference between the mean weight of SNHL infants respect to NHL newborns (P = 0.048). Conclusion: The high SNHL prevalence (10.03%) in our cohort underlines how infants at risk are more susceptible to suffer from SNHL; in particular NICU newborns have a 33% greater chance of developing SNHL, because of the presence of multiple risk factors (or = 1.33) and their interaction. As the number of coexisting risk factors increases, the prevalence of SNHL also increases (r2 = 0.93).
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)513-518
Number of pages6
JournalInternational Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Volume77
Publication statusPublished - 2013

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Otorhinolaryngology

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