Performance Assessment of PPP Surveys with Open Source Software Using the GNSS GPS–GLONASS–Galileo Constellations

Gino Dardanelli, Claudia Pipitone, Antonio Angrisano, Salvatore Gaglione, Anna Innac

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1 Citation (Scopus)


In this work, the performance of the multi-GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System)Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technique, in static mode, is analyzed. Specifically, GPS (GlobalPositioning System), GLONASS, and Galileo systems are considered, and quantifying the Galileocontribution is one of the main objectives. The open source software RTKLib is adopted to process thedata, with precise satellite orbits and clocks from CNES (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales) and CLS(Collecte Localisation Satellites) analysis centers for International GNSS Service (IGS). The Iono-freemodel is used to correct ionospheric errors, the GOT-4.7 model is used to correct tidal effects, andDifferential Code Biases (DCB) are taken from the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt für Luftund Raumfahrt(DLR) center. Two different tropospheric models are tested: Saastamoinen and Estimate ZTD (ZenithTroposhperic Delay). For the proposed study, a dataset of 31 days from a permanent GNSS station,placed in Palermo (Italy), and a dataset of 10 days from a static geodetic receiver, placed nearby thestation, have been collected and processed by the most used open source software in the geomaticcommunity. The considered GNSS configurations are seven: GPS only, GLONASS only, Galileo only,GPS+GLONASS, GPS+Galileo, GLONASS+Galileo, and GPS+GLONASS+Galileo. The results showsignificant performance improvement of the GNSS combinations with respect to single GNSS cases.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages18
Publication statusPublished - 2020

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Instrumentation
  • Engineering(all)
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes

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