Early after the beginning of the pacemaker era, endocardial right ventricular apex has been the most extensively used site for cardiac pacing because it was easily accessible and reliable in a long-term perspective. However many data have demonstrated that this kind of pacing is suboptimal from a physiologic point of view because it causes several adverse effects such as altered ventricular contraction geometry, mitral regurgitation, perfusion alterations and interference with myocardial ion channels which determine a worsening of left ventricular function. Several strategies have been proposed to solve these problems (alternative pacing sites, specific algorithms able to reduce the percentage of ventricular pacing) which are still under evaluation. In this review we analyzed the effects of right apical ventricular pacing and its possible alternatives.
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||Italian Heart Journal|
|Publication status||Published - 2005|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine