On the Road to Accurate Biomarkers for Cardiometabolic Diseases by Integrating Precision and Gender Medicine Approaches

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The need to facilitate the complex management of cardiometabolic diseases (CMD) has led to the detection of many biomarkers, however, there are no clear explanations of their role in the prevention, diagnosis or prognosis of these diseases. Molecules associated with disease pathways represent valid disease surrogates and well-fitted CMD biomarkers. To address this challenge, data from multi-omics types (genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, microbiomics, and nutrigenomics), from human and animal models, have become available. However, individual omics types only provide data on a small part of molecules involved in the complex CMD mechanisms, whereas, here, we propose that their integration leads to multidimensional data. Such data provide a better understanding of molecules related to CMD mechanisms and, consequently, increase the possibility of identifying well-fitted biomarkers. In addition, the application of gender medicine also helps to identify accurate biomarkers according to gender, facilitating a differential CMD management. Accordingly, the impact of gender differences in CMD pathophysiology has been widely demonstrated, where gender is referred to the complex interrelation and integration of sex (as a biological and functional marker of the human body) and psychological and cultural behavior (due to ethnical, social, and religious background). In this review, all these aspects are described and discussed, as well as potential limitations and future directions in this incipient field.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6015-6033
Number of pages19
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Publication statusPublished - 2019

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry


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