Ocular Refraction at Birth and Its Development During the First Year of Life in a Large Cohort of Babies in a Single Center in Northern Italy

Vincenza Maria Elena Bonfiglio, Salvatore Cillino, Silvia Bartollino, Eliana Forbice, Maria Elena Filippelli, Maria Elena Filippelli, Giuseppe Nascimbeni, Salvatore Cillino, Francesco Semeraro, Ciro Costagliola, Ilenia Gregoria Forbice

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate refraction at birth and during the first year of life in a large cohort of babies born in a single center in Northern Italy. We also aimed to analyze refractive errors in relation to the gestational age at birth. An observational ophthalmological assessment was performed within 24 h of birth on 12,427 newborns. Refraction was examined using streak retinoscopy after the administration of tropicamide (1%). Values in the range of between +0.50 ≤ D ≤ +4.00 were defined as physiological refraction at birth. Newborns with refraction values outside of the physiological range were followed up during the first year of life. Comparative analyses were conducted in a subgroup of babies with known gestational ages. The following distribution of refraction at birth was recorded: 88.03% of the babies had physiological refraction, 5.03% had moderate hyperopia, 2.14% had severe hyperopia, 3.4%, had emmetropia, 0.45%, had myopia, 0.94% had astigmatism, and 0.01% had anisometropia. By the end of the first year of life, we observed reductions in hyperopia and astigmatism, and stabilization of myopia. Preterm babies had a four-fold higher risk of congenital myopia and a three-fold higher risk of congenital emmetropia as compared to term babies. Refraction profiles obtained at birth changed during the first year of life, leading to a normalization of the refraction values. Gestational age at birth affected the incidence of refractive errors and amblyopia.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)539-
Number of pages6
JournalFrontiers in Pediatrics
Volume7
Publication statusPublished - 2020

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

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