Numerical modelling of out-of-plane response of infilled frames: State of the art and future challenges for the equivalent strut macromodels

Liborio Cavaleri, Athanasios K. Tsaris, Tsaris, Panagiotis G. Asteris

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

98 Citations (Scopus)


Infill-frame interaction constitutes a still open question both in research and in practicing engineering. Computational models used to predict this interaction are, in most cases, addressing the estimation of the response of the infilled frames when subjected to actions parallel to their plane. However, the observation of the post-earthquake damage has demonstrated that infills, weakened by the in-plane actions, may fail out-of-plane increasing the risks associated to the earthquake scenarios. In spite of this, different studies have shown that infills, if properly designed and supported by the frame, exhibit a significant strength and displacement capacity when called to resist to out-of-plane actions, offering the possibility to develop an arching mechanism in their deformed configuration. The prediction of the combined in-plane out-of-plane response prefigures the new goal of the seismic assessment of masonry infilled frames. This paper presents an in-depth literature review of the capacity models developed for the prediction of the out-of-plane response of infilled frames, from the first flexural based computational models to the models implementing the arching action theory in their formulation. A comparison between the results obtainable is provided in order to compare the models reliability against the results of different experimental tests. A final discussion is devoted to the effectiveness the recent integrated in-plane/out-of-plane macromodels used in 3D structural models. A new promising approach, based on the use nonlinear fiber-section elements, is also outlined providing a numerical testing of the capacity of such elements to naturally account for the out-of-plane arching mechanism.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)110-122
Number of pages13
JournalEngineering Structures
Publication statusPublished - 2017

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Civil and Structural Engineering


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