NPC1L1 and ABCG5/8 induction explain synergistic fecal cholesterol excretion in ob/ob mice co-treated with PPAR-α and LXR agonists

Maurizio Averna, Angelo Baldassare Cefalu', Nishtha S. Srivastava, Rai Ajit K. Srivastava

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) and transintestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE) are two important pathways for body cholesterol elimination. We studied these pathways in an animal model of diabetes and obesity (ob/ob) where HDL function is compromised as a result of hyperglycemia, low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress. Co-treatment of ob/ob mice with PPAR-α (fenofibrate) and LXR (T0901317) agonists increased fecal cholesterol by 12-fold; PPAR-α and LXR agonists individually showed 2.6- and 4.0-fold fecal cholesterol excretion, respectively. We investigated the mechanism of synergistic efficacy of PPAR-α and LXR agonists in fecal cholesterol excretion. LXR agonist and the combination of PPAR-α and LXR agonists had greater HDL-C elevation. Ex vivo cholesterol efflux showed correlation with the fecal cholesterol excretion but was not sufficient to explain 12-fold increases in the fecal cholesterol in the co-treated mice. Therefore, we examined TICE to explain the 12-fold increases in the fecal cholesterol. A strong positive correlation of fecal cholesterol with ATP binding cassette transporter G5 (ABCG5) and G8 and a negative correlation with NPC1L1 was observed. ABCG5, G8 and NPC1L1 are involved in intestinal cholesterol absorption. The extent of influence of PPAR-α and LXR agonists on RCT and TICE was distinctly different. PPAR-α agonist increased fecal cholesterol primarily by influencing TICE, while LXR agonist influenced fecal cholesterol excretion via both RCT and TICE mechanisms. Synergistic efficacy on fecal cholesterol excretion following co-treatment with PPAR-α and LXR agonists occurred through a combination of RCT, TICE, and the key enzyme in bile synthesis, cholesterol 7-α hydroxylase (cyp7a1). These results suggest that cholesterol efflux, biliary cholesterol excretion, and TICE collectively contributed to the 12-fold increases in the fecal cholesterol excretion in ob/ob mice co-treated with PPAR-α and LXR agonists.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)247-262
Number of pages16
JournalMolecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Volume473
Publication statusPublished - 2020

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Molecular Biology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Cell Biology

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