Nonprecious Copper-Based Transparent Top Electrode via Seed Layer-Assisted Thermal Evaporation for High-Performance Semitransparent n-i-p Perovskite Solar Cells

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Abstract

Semitransparent perovskite solar cells (ST‐PSCs) are highly attractive for applications in building‐integrated photovoltaics as well as in multijunction tandem devices. To fabricate high‐performance ST‐PSCs, suitable transparent top electrodes are strongly needed. Dielectric/metal/dielectric (DMD) multilayer structures have been shown to be promising candidates, though generally based on high‐value metals such as gold or silver, the latter causing also stability issues by reacting with perovskite. Here, a novel DMD transparent electrode based on nonprecious, less‐reactive copper is developed via thermal evaporation and used as a top anode in the fabrication of high‐performance semitransparent n‐i‐p perovskite solar cells, the best device yielding a power conversion efficiency as high as 12.5%. The DMD architecture consists of a gold‐seeded Cu thin film sandwiched between two MoO x dielectric layers. It is demonstrated that Cu self‐aggregation and diffusion into MoOx can be substantially limited by introducing an ultrathin (1.5 nm) Au seed layer, and conductive Cu films as thin as 9.5 nm can be achieved. A fine tuning of the perovskite layer thickness is also carried out to further enhance the device transparency up to a maximum average visible transmittance approaching 25%.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages12
JournalAdvanced Materials Technologies
Volume4
Publication statusPublished - 2019

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Materials Science
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

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