Nitric Oxide Modulation Of The Basal Ganglia Circuitry: Therapeutic Implication For Parkinson's Disease And Other Motor Disorders

Giuseppe Di Giovanni, Alessandro Pitruzzella, Arcangelo Benigno, Salvatore Galati, Alessandro Pitruzzella, Mario Valentino, Massimo Pierucci, Vincenzo Di Matteo, Richard Muscat, Arcangelo Benigno, Giuseppe Di Giovanni

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Several recent studies have emphasized a crucial role for the nitrergic system in movement control and the pathophysiology of the basal ganglia (BG). These observations are supported by anatomical evidence demonstrating the presence of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in all the basal ganglia nuclei. In fact, nitrergic terminals have been reported to make synaptic contacts with both substantia nigra dopamine-containing neurons and their terminal areas such as the striatum, the globus pallidus and the subthalamus. These brain areas contain a high expression of nitric oxide (NO)-producing neurons, with the striatum having the greatest number, together with important NO afferent input. In this paper, the distribution of NO in the BG nuclei will be described. Furthermore, evidence demonstrating the nitrergic control of BG activity will be reviewed. The new avenues that the increasing knowledge of NO in motor control has opened for exploring the pathophysiology and pharmacology of Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders will be discussed. For example, inhibition of striatal NO/guanosine monophosphate signal pathway by phosphodiesterases seems to be effective in levodopa-induced dyskinesia. However, the results of experimental studies have to be interpreted with caution given the complexities of nitrergic signalling and the limitations of animal models. Nevertheless, the NO system represents a promising pharmacological intervention for treating Parkinson's disease and related disorders.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)777-791
Number of pages15
JournalCNS & NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS. DRUG TARGETS
Volume10
Publication statusPublished - 2011

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Neuroscience
  • Pharmacology

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