Neuropsychological Alterations in Children Affected by Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract

Sleep-related breathing disorders are a group of clinical conditions ranging fromhabitual snoring to obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) during the lifespan.In children, other risk factors are represented by adenotonsillar hypertrophy, rhinitis,nasal structure alteration, cleft palate, velopharyngeal flap surgery, pharyngealmasses, craniofacial malformations, genetic syndrome (i.e. Down syndrome,Crouzon syndrome, and Apert syndrome), genetic hypoplasia mandibular (i.e.Pierre Robin syndrome, Treacher Collins syndrome, Shy-Drager syndrome, andCornelia De Lange syndrome), craniofacial traumas, chronic or seasonal rhinitis,asthma, neuromuscular syndromes, brainstem pathologies (i.e. Arnold-Chiarimalformation and Joubert syndrome), achondroplasia, and mucopolysaccharidosis.OSAS may affect the executive functioning such as motivational ability, planning,behavior modulation, ability to complete an action program, identification offunctional strategies to achieve the goal, problem solving, flexibility, monitoringand self-assessment of behavior in relation to results, change of task, or behaviorin the light of emerging information, which may be all impaired by nocturnalintermittent hypoxia also during the developmental age. The clinical presentationof OSAS can mimic other neurobehavioral symptoms, such as ADHD syndrome,learning problems, or can exacerbate the Fragile X syndrome, and generalized nonconvulsiveepilepsy symptoms.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationUpdates in Sleep Neurology and Obstructive Sleep Apnea
Number of pages17
Publication statusPublished - 2020

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