Monte Carlo simulation of energy absorbed in phenolic ESR dosimeters added with gadolinium exposed to thermal, epithermal and fast neutrons

Giorgio Collura, Antonio Bartolotta, Salvatore Gallo, Anna Longo, Maurizio Marrale, Marrale, Longo, Collura, Salvatore Gallo

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2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In this work analyses of the energy released per unit mass in phenolic compound exposed to neutronbeams were performed with the aim of predicting the increase in dose achievable by addition of gadolinium(Gd) inside the pellets. In particular, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were carried out for IRGANOX1076 phenolic compound irradiated with neutron beams with different energy spectra at various depthsinside a water phantom. The addition of gadolinium increases sensitivity of phenolic ESR (electron spinresonance) dosimeters to neutrons thanks to the high gadolinium cross section for neutron capture and tothe large number of secondary particles (mainly Auger and internal conversion electrons) which are ableto release energy inside the sensitive material layers. For small depths in water phantom and low energyneutron spectra the increase in dose due to gadolinium is large (more than a factor 50). The enhancementis smaller in case of epithermal neutron beam, whereas the increase in dose for fast neutrons is less than50%. In order to have a comparison with other ESR dosimeters the energy released per unit mass in phenoliccompound was compared with that calculated in alanine pellets. For thermal neutron beams theenergy released in phenolic compound with gadolinium is comparable to that released in alanine forsmall depths in phantom, whereas it is larger than in alanine for large depths. In case of epithermaland fast neutron beams the energy released in phenolic compound is larger than in alanine samplesbecause the elastic scattering with hydrogen nuclei is more probable for high neutron energies and thisphenolic compound is characterized by an higher number of 1H nuclei than alanine. All results here foundsuggest that these phenolic pellets could be fruitfully used for dosimetric applications in Neutron CaptureTherapy.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)21-28
Number of pages8
JournalNUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH. SECTION B, BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS
Publication statusPublished - 2017

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Dosimeters
Gadolinium
alanine
fast neutrons
gadolinium
Neutron beams
thermal neutrons
dosimeters
neutron beams
Neutrons
neutrons
pellets
Electrons
electrons
simulation
dosage
energy
nuclei
Elastic scattering
internal conversion

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • Instrumentation

Cite this

@article{c04eb69a12744025914eaf43a483b044,
title = "Monte Carlo simulation of energy absorbed in phenolic ESR dosimeters added with gadolinium exposed to thermal, epithermal and fast neutrons",
abstract = "In this work analyses of the energy released per unit mass in phenolic compound exposed to neutronbeams were performed with the aim of predicting the increase in dose achievable by addition of gadolinium(Gd) inside the pellets. In particular, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were carried out for IRGANOX1076 phenolic compound irradiated with neutron beams with different energy spectra at various depthsinside a water phantom. The addition of gadolinium increases sensitivity of phenolic ESR (electron spinresonance) dosimeters to neutrons thanks to the high gadolinium cross section for neutron capture and tothe large number of secondary particles (mainly Auger and internal conversion electrons) which are ableto release energy inside the sensitive material layers. For small depths in water phantom and low energyneutron spectra the increase in dose due to gadolinium is large (more than a factor 50). The enhancementis smaller in case of epithermal neutron beam, whereas the increase in dose for fast neutrons is less than50{\%}. In order to have a comparison with other ESR dosimeters the energy released per unit mass in phenoliccompound was compared with that calculated in alanine pellets. For thermal neutron beams theenergy released in phenolic compound with gadolinium is comparable to that released in alanine forsmall depths in phantom, whereas it is larger than in alanine for large depths. In case of epithermaland fast neutron beams the energy released in phenolic compound is larger than in alanine samplesbecause the elastic scattering with hydrogen nuclei is more probable for high neutron energies and thisphenolic compound is characterized by an higher number of 1H nuclei than alanine. All results here foundsuggest that these phenolic pellets could be fruitfully used for dosimetric applications in Neutron CaptureTherapy.",
author = "Giorgio Collura and Antonio Bartolotta and Salvatore Gallo and Anna Longo and Maurizio Marrale and Marrale and Longo and Collura and Salvatore Gallo",
year = "2017",
language = "English",
pages = "21--28",
journal = "NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH. SECTION B, BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS",
issn = "0168-583X",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Monte Carlo simulation of energy absorbed in phenolic ESR dosimeters added with gadolinium exposed to thermal, epithermal and fast neutrons

AU - Collura, Giorgio

AU - Bartolotta, Antonio

AU - Gallo, Salvatore

AU - Longo, Anna

AU - Marrale, Maurizio

AU - Marrale, null

AU - Longo, null

AU - Collura, null

AU - Gallo, Salvatore

PY - 2017

Y1 - 2017

N2 - In this work analyses of the energy released per unit mass in phenolic compound exposed to neutronbeams were performed with the aim of predicting the increase in dose achievable by addition of gadolinium(Gd) inside the pellets. In particular, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were carried out for IRGANOX1076 phenolic compound irradiated with neutron beams with different energy spectra at various depthsinside a water phantom. The addition of gadolinium increases sensitivity of phenolic ESR (electron spinresonance) dosimeters to neutrons thanks to the high gadolinium cross section for neutron capture and tothe large number of secondary particles (mainly Auger and internal conversion electrons) which are ableto release energy inside the sensitive material layers. For small depths in water phantom and low energyneutron spectra the increase in dose due to gadolinium is large (more than a factor 50). The enhancementis smaller in case of epithermal neutron beam, whereas the increase in dose for fast neutrons is less than50%. In order to have a comparison with other ESR dosimeters the energy released per unit mass in phenoliccompound was compared with that calculated in alanine pellets. For thermal neutron beams theenergy released in phenolic compound with gadolinium is comparable to that released in alanine forsmall depths in phantom, whereas it is larger than in alanine for large depths. In case of epithermaland fast neutron beams the energy released in phenolic compound is larger than in alanine samplesbecause the elastic scattering with hydrogen nuclei is more probable for high neutron energies and thisphenolic compound is characterized by an higher number of 1H nuclei than alanine. All results here foundsuggest that these phenolic pellets could be fruitfully used for dosimetric applications in Neutron CaptureTherapy.

AB - In this work analyses of the energy released per unit mass in phenolic compound exposed to neutronbeams were performed with the aim of predicting the increase in dose achievable by addition of gadolinium(Gd) inside the pellets. In particular, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were carried out for IRGANOX1076 phenolic compound irradiated with neutron beams with different energy spectra at various depthsinside a water phantom. The addition of gadolinium increases sensitivity of phenolic ESR (electron spinresonance) dosimeters to neutrons thanks to the high gadolinium cross section for neutron capture and tothe large number of secondary particles (mainly Auger and internal conversion electrons) which are ableto release energy inside the sensitive material layers. For small depths in water phantom and low energyneutron spectra the increase in dose due to gadolinium is large (more than a factor 50). The enhancementis smaller in case of epithermal neutron beam, whereas the increase in dose for fast neutrons is less than50%. In order to have a comparison with other ESR dosimeters the energy released per unit mass in phenoliccompound was compared with that calculated in alanine pellets. For thermal neutron beams theenergy released in phenolic compound with gadolinium is comparable to that released in alanine forsmall depths in phantom, whereas it is larger than in alanine for large depths. In case of epithermaland fast neutron beams the energy released in phenolic compound is larger than in alanine samplesbecause the elastic scattering with hydrogen nuclei is more probable for high neutron energies and thisphenolic compound is characterized by an higher number of 1H nuclei than alanine. All results here foundsuggest that these phenolic pellets could be fruitfully used for dosimetric applications in Neutron CaptureTherapy.

UR - http://hdl.handle.net/10447/241115

UR - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168583X17307772

M3 - Article

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JO - NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH. SECTION B, BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS

JF - NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH. SECTION B, BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS

SN - 0168-583X

ER -