Background: Chronic periodontal disease is an infectious disease consisting of prolonged inflammation of thesupporting tooth tissue and resulting in bone loss. Guided bone regeneration procedures have become common andsafe treatments in dentistry, and in this context dental stem cells would represent the ideal solution as autologouscells. In this study, we verified the ability of dental pulp mesenchymal stem cells (DPSCs) and gingival mesenchymalstem cells (GMSCs) harvested from periodontally affected teeth to produce new mineralized bone tissue in vitro, andcompared this to cells from healthy teeth.Methods: To characterize DPSCs and GMSCs, we assessed colony-forming assay, immunophenotyping,mesenchymal/stem cell phenotyping, stem gene profiling by means of flow cytometry, and quantitativepolymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The effects of proinflammatory cytokines on mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)proliferation and differentiation potential were investigated. We also observed participation of several heatshock proteins (HSPs) and actin-depolymerizing factors (ADFs) during osteogenic differentiation.Results: DPSCs and GMSCs were successfully isolated both from periodontally affected dental tissue and controls.Periodontally affected dental MSCs proliferated faster, and the inflamed environment did not affect MSC markerexpressions. The calcium deposition was higher in periodontally affected MSCs than in the control group.Proinflammatory cytokines activate a cytoskeleton remodeling, interacting with HSPs including HSP90 and HSPA9,thioredoxin-1, and ADFs such as as profilin-1, cofilin-1, and vinculin that probably mediate the increased acquisition inthe inflamed environment.Conclusions: Our findings provide evidence that periodontally affected dental tissue (both pulp and gingiva) can beused as a source of MSCs with intact stem cell properties. Moreover, we demonstrated that the osteogenic capabilityof DPSCs and GMSCs in the test group was not only preserved but increased by the overexpression of severalproinflammatory cytokine-dependent chaperones and stress response proteins.
- Medicine (miscellaneous)
- Molecular Medicine
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology (miscellaneous)
- Cell Biology