[automatically translated] The biological risk in the workplace is a factor of great relevance and evolving, including in relation to the growing attention to pathogens resistant to common therapies, identification of emerging diseases (avian flu, SARS, West Nile) and the all'ubiquitarietà risk. The focus of the occupational physician must turn to various work categories exposed, besides those inherent in the health sector whose treatment will be dealt with in another chapter; among these we remember, in a non-exhaustive list, all veterinary professions, those active in the primary sector, as well as those involved in the waste removal and treatment, waste water treatment and sewage, food handlers and animal derivatives, operators of beauty clinics, insiders cemetery services, workers who need to travel for reasons of service and stay abroad in countries with high endemicity of particular infectious diseases, the indoor environments workers. Among the infectious diseases of greater prominence in the employment field is reminiscent of zoonoses, such as brucellosis, the rickettsial, leishmaniasis, echinococcosis, particularly endemic in the central and southern Italian regions and other less widely used, but not negligible, such as borreliosis Lyme, common in northern regions, Q fever, leptospirosis, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium and bovis tuberculosis, foot and mouth disease. A special mention deserves tetanus, for prophylactic strategies that the occupational physician must adopt in exposed occupational groups. Among the major viral disease etiology it must be given to viral hepatitis in parenteral transmission even unapparent, interesting mainly the health sector, but also that of removal and waste treatment and aesthetic centers; in other areas such as the treatment of waste water, the handling of food, as well as primary education institutions and in closed communities (barracks, prisons etc.), attention should be given to hepatitis fecal-oral transmission ( hepatitis A, hepatitis E). Not least for gated communities is the risk of contracting the flu, the notable increase of the same in the winter season, with major business and social economic impact. There are also fungal diseases are not negligible in some employment sectors, especially in the primary and tertiary sectors, including aspergillosis, histoplasmosis and cryptococcosis; in this case the occupational physician, on the occasion of the health surveillance, should, as much as possible, avoid exposure to the risk of those who for various reasons can be considered hypersensitive (eg immunosuppressed subjects). Finally, in relation to workers who have to travel abroad, especially in tropical areas, it is necessary to fulfill the prescription of preventive and protective measures against certain endemic diseases such as amebiasis and malaria. Many infectious diseases are subject to mandatory notification in accordance with DM 11/12/1990 and compulsory notification pursuant to Art. 139 of Presidential Decree 1124/65. An active role in this regard is represented by the occupational physician who is diagnosed in employment and represents an important landmark in the implementation of proper preventive and protective measures for the biological risk management.
Original languageItalian
Title of host publicationTrattato di Medicina del Lavoro
Number of pages15
Publication statusPublished - 2015

Cite this

Picciotto, D., Verso, M. G., & De Marchis, P. (2015). Malattie Infettive. In Trattato di Medicina del Lavoro (pp. 1803-1817)