Abstract

Magnesium (Mg) is the second most abundant cation after potassium in the intracellular compartment and has a critical role in modulating a large variety of cellular activities and metabolic pathways. Mg is cofactor in over 300 enzymatic reactions including all reactions that involve ATP utilization and transfer [1,2]. Over the past decades, the clinical relevance of Mg and its impact on health has been documented. In the human body, around 24 grams (1 mole) of Mg are present. Less than 1% of total Mg is in the serum; normal serum Mg concentrations range between 0.75-0.95 mmol/L (1.7-2.5 mg/dL or 1.5-1.9 meq/L). In healthy adults, daily Mg requirement is around 300-400 mg (5 to 6 mg/kg/day) but it is higher in several physiological conditions (i.e. pregnancy, aging, exercise, etc.) and diseases (type-2 diabetes, infections, etc.). Severe Mg deficit may be associated with neuromuscular symptoms, such as weakness, tremor, muscle fasciculation, dysphagia, positive Chvostek’s sign (facial twitching as a reaction to the tapping of the facial nerve), and positive Trousseau’s sign (spasm of muscles of the hand and forearm following the application of a pressure cuff). Neurologic disturbances may involve the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, causing orthostatic hypotension or borderline hypertension. Mild to moderate Mg deficits are generally asymptomatic and clinical signs are usually absent and/or non-specific. Subjective symptomatology may include anxiety, hyperemotionality, and fatigue, depressive symptoms to major depression, headache, insomnia, light-headedness, and dizziness. Peripheral signs such as myalgias, paresthesias, and cramps may be present. Non-specific functional complains may include chest pain, sine materia dyspnea, precordialgia, palpitations, extrasystoles, etc. Hyperemotionality, tremor, asthenia, sleep disorders, amnesic and cognitive disturbances are particularly important in older adults, and may be often overlooked or confused with age-related symptoms [3].
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages2
JournalINTERNAL MEDICINE OPEN ACCESS
Volume09
Publication statusPublished - 2019

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