Influence of grain quality, semolinas and baker's yeast on bread made from old landraces and modern genotypes of Sicilian durum wheat

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Several studies showed that products made with ancient wheat genotypes have beneficial health properties compared to those obtained with modern wheat varieties, even though the mechanisms responsible for the positive effects are not clear. Ancient durum wheat genotypes are being currently used for the production of pasta, bread and other typical bakery products but the consumption is strictly local. In this work 15 genotypes of Triticum turgidum subsp. durum, including 10 ancient and 5 modern, were characterized for their technological traits through the determination of different parameters: protein content, dry gluten, gluten index, yellow index, ash, P/L, W and G. In addition, the baking aptitude of all genotypes was evaluated. All semolinas were subjected to leavening by commercial baker's yeast and the experimental breads were subjected to the qualitative characterization (weight loss, height, firmness, colour, volatile organic compounds, image and sensory analysis). The results obtained showed that protein content of grains and semolinas was higher in ancient rather than modern genotypes. Dry gluten ranged from 6.7% of the modern variety Simeto to 13.6% of the ancient genotype Scorsonera. Great differences were found for the yellow index which reached the highest value in Saragolla variety. The P/L and W ratios were significantly higher for the modern genotypes. On average, weight loss was about 14 g, while bread height varied significantly between the trials. Bread consistency varied between 12.6 and 31.3 N. Differences were observed for the yellow of the crumb (higher for modern genotypes) and for the redness of the crust (higher for ancient genotypes). The sensory evaluation displayed a high variability among the breads from the 10 ancient genotypes, while the control breads received scores closed to those of the modern genotypes. This study revealed that the modern durum wheat varieties showed a certain uniformity of behaviour, while the ancient genotypes exhibited a great variability of the final attributes of breads.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages12
JournalFood Research International
Publication statusPublished - 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Food Science


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