Induction of skeletal abnormalities and autophagy in Paracentrotus lividus sea urchin embryos exposed to gadolinium

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Abstract

Gadolinium (Gd) concentration is constantly increasing in the aquatic environment, becoming an emergent environmental pollutant. We investigated the effects of Gd on Paracentrotus lividus sea urchin embryos, focusing on skeletogenesis and autophagy. We observed a delay of biomineral deposition at 24 hours post fertilization (hpf), and a strong impairment of skeleton growth at 48 hpf, frequently displayed by an asymmetrical pattern. Skeleton growth was found partially resumed in recovery experiments. The mesodermal cells designated to biomineralization were found correctly migrated at 24 hpf, but not at 48 hpf. Western blot analysis showed an increase of the LC3-II autophagic marker at 24 and 48 hpf. Confocal microscopy studies confirmed the increased number of autophagolysosomes and autophagosomes. Results show the hazard of Gd in the marine environment, indicating that Gd is able to affect different aspects of sea urchin development: morphogenesis, biomineralization, and stress response through autophagy.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)12-20
Number of pages9
JournalMarine Environmental Research
Volume130
Publication statusPublished - 2017

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All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Oceanography
  • Aquatic Science
  • Pollution

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